Theodoxus fluviatilis 3.png
An oblique left side view of a live Theodoxus fluviatilis
Theodoxus danubialis.jpg
Two shells of the freshwater nerite Theodoxus danubialis, scale bar in mm
Scientific classification

About 110 freshwater species, some brackish water species, and some fully marine species

Neritidae, common name the nerites, is a taxonomic family of small- to medium-sized saltwater and freshwater snails which have a gill and a distinctive operculum.

Vittina waigiensis

The family Neritidae includes marine genera such as Nerita, marine and freshwater genera such as Neritina, and freshwater and brackish water genera such as Theodoxus.

A dish of cooked nerites from the Rajang River, Sarawak, Malaysia
Meat extracted from freshwater nerites in the Punjab prior to cooking

The common name "nerite" as well as the family name Neritidae and the genus name Nerita, are derived from the name of Nerites, who was a sea god in Greek mythology.


Neritidae live primarily in the southern hemisphere, but there are some exceptions, such as a genus Theodoxus[2] or Bathynerita naticoidea.


This family consists of the five following subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005):

  • Neritinae Rafinesque, 1815 - synonyms: Neritellinae Gray, 1847; Proto neritidae Kittl, 1899
  • † Neritariinae Wenz, 1938
  • Neritininae Poey, 1852
    • tribe Neritinini Poey, 1852 - synonyms: Catilinae Gray, 1868; Orthopomatini Gray, 1868; Stenopomatini Gray, 1868; Septariini Jousseaume, 1894
    • tribe Theodoxini Bandel, 2001[3]
  • Smaragdiinae H. B. Baker, 1923
  • † Velatinae Bandel, 2001[3]


Genera, subgenera and species within the family Neritidae include:[4]

Subfamily Neritinae

  • Genus Bathynerita Clarke, 1989
  • Genus Nerita Linnaeus, 1758 - type genus, synonyms: Turrita Wagner, 1897[5]
    • Subgenus Adenerita
    • Subgenus Amphinerita
    • Subgenus Cymostyla
    • Subgenus Heminerita
    • Subgenus Ilynerita
    • Subgenus Linnerita
    • Subgenus Melanerita Martens, 1889
    • Subgenus Mienerita
    • Subgenus Nerita
    • Subgenus Ritena
    • Subgenus Theliostyla

Subfamily † Neritariinae

  • Neritaria Koken, 1892

Subfamily Neritininae
tribe Neritinini

tribe Theodoxini

  • Genus Clithon Montfort, 1810[8]
  • Genus Clypeolum Récluz, 1842[9]
    • Species Clypeolum auriculatum
    • Species Clypeolum granosum
    • Species Clypeolum latissimum
  • Genus Fluvinerita Pilsbry, 1932[3]
    • Species Fluvinerita tenebricosa
  • Genus Neripteron Lesson, 1831[10]
Two shells of Neritodryas cornea

Subfamily Smaragdiinae

  • Genus Gaillardotia Bourguignat, 1877
  • Genus Magadis Melvill & Standen, 1899
  • Genus Smaragdella Baker, 1923
  • Genus Smaragdia Issel, 1869[12]
  • Genus Smaragoista

Subfamily † Velatinae


  1. ^ Strong E. E., Gargominy O., Ponder W. F. & Bouchet P. (2008). "Global Diversity of Gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in Freshwater". Hydrobiologia 595: 149-166. hdl:10088/7390 doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9012-6.
  2. ^ Bunje P. M. & Lindberg D. R. (2007). "Lineage divergence of a freshwater snail clade associated with post-Tethys marine basin development". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(2): 373–387. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.026.
  3. ^ a b c Bandel K. (2001). "The history of Theodoxus and Neritina connected with description and systematic evaluation of related Neritimorpha (Gastropoda)". Mittelungen aus dem Geologisch-Palaontologischen Institut Universitat Hamburg 85: 65-164. abstract Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Powell A. W. B., New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1
  5. ^ Bouchet, P.; Krijnen, C.; Gofas, S. (2016). Nerita Linnaeus, 1758. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138254 on 2017-12-07
  6. ^ Neubauer, Thomas A.; Bouchet, P.; Sartori, André F. (2016). Vitta Mörch, 1852. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=818782 on 2017-12-07
  7. ^ WoRMS (2009). Septaria. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=206410 on 2010-05-03
  8. ^ Bouchet, P.; Rosenberg, G. (2016). Clithon Montfort, 1810. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=737507 on 2017-12-07
  9. ^ Bouchet, P. (2016). Clypeolum. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=873719 on 2017-12-07
  10. ^ Bouchet, P. (2016). Neripteron Lesson, 1831. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=818409 on 2017-12-07
  11. ^ WoRMS (2009). Puperita Gray, 1857. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205488 on 2010-05-03
  12. ^ WoRMS (2009). Smaragdia Issel, 1869. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138255 on 2010-05-03

External links

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