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North Macedonia–NATO relations

North Macedonia NATO Accession Treaty
Flag of North Macedonia.svg
  Members that ratified the treaty   
  North Macedonia
TypeAccession treaty
Signed6 February 2019 (2019-02-06)
LocationBrussels, Belgium
Effective27 March 2020
ConditionEntry into force of the accession treaty after ratification by all current NATO members. Membership of North Macedonia starts after deposit of its instrument of accession after the treaty has entered into force.
Ratifiers
29 / 29
DepositaryUnited States
LanguagesEnglish and French
Coat of arms of North Macedonia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
North Macedonia
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North Macedonia is a member state of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In 1995, the country joined the Partnership for Peace. It then began taking part in various NATO missions, including the International Security Assistance Force and the Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan. At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Greece vetoed the country's invitation to join; however, NATO member states agreed that the country would receive an invitation upon resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute.[2] Following an agreement in June 2018 to rename the country, representatives of NATO member states signed a protocol on the accession of North Macedonia to NATO on 6 February 2019.[3] Over the next thirteen months, all of NATO's 29 member states ratified the protocol. The accession protocol entered into force on 19 March 2020, allowing North Macedonia to deposit its instrument of accession and thereby become a member state of NATO on 27 March 2020.

History

A five soldiers in tan colored desert camouflage and a green camouflage vests with dark sunglasses and tan hats patrol on a street.
Macedonian troops have participated with NATO security missions including ISAF in Afghanistan and KFOR in Kosovo.[4]

The then Republic of Macedonia joined the Partnership for Peace in 1995, and commenced its Membership Action Plan in 1999 at the Washington Summit, at the same time as eight other countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia). Macedonia was part of the Vilnius Group, and formed the Adriatic Charter with Croatia and Albania in 2003 to better coordinate NATO accession.[5]

Participating in the 1999 NATO intervention in Kosovo, it received aid from NATO in dealing with refugees fleeing from Kosovo. In August 2001, NATO intervened in the 2001 insurgency, during which a rebel Albanian group, the National Liberation Army, fought government forces. In Operation Essential Harvest, NATO troops joined with the Macedonian military to disarm rebel forces following a cease-fire agreement.[6]

At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Greece vetoed the Republic of Macedonia's invitation to join over the Macedonia naming dispute, however, NATO nations agreed that the country would receive an invitation upon resolution of the disagreement.[2] Greece felt that its neighbour's constitutional name implies territorial aspirations against its own region of Macedonia. The Republic of Macedonia sued Greece in the International Court of Justice over their veto of Macedonia's NATO membership, citing their 1995 interim accord that allowed Macedonia to join international organizations under the name "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", which is how NATO, with the exception of Turkey, recognized their bid.[7] Greece counterargued that it was a collective decision of NATO not to invite the Republic of Macedonia, and therefore the interim accord signed between the two countries was not violated. The ICJ ruled in December 2011 that Greece was wrong to have blocked its neighbor's bid, finding them in breach of the agreement. Greece also blocked the Republic of Macedonia's start of negotiations on accession to the European Union over the naming dispute.[8]

Then-United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton asked the Republic of Macedonia and Greece to find an "acceptable solution" to the dispute, so that the Republic of Macedonia would be free to join NATO.[9] In 2014, prior to the 65th anniversary of its founding, NATO announced that it would not be offering any new countries membership in the organisation that year. Some analysts, such as Jorge Benitez of the Atlantic Council think tank, argued that this reluctance was partly due to the new security climate after Russia's annexation of Crimea.[10] There has been continued debate about how Russia will view the republic's accession.[11]

In March 2016, Macedonian Defense Minister Zoran Jolevski stated his hope that his country's handling of the European migrant crisis might bring it closer to NATO membership.[12]

On 12 June 2017, Prime Minister Zoran Zaev signaled he would consider alternatives names for the country in order to strike a compromise with Greece, settle the naming dispute, and lift Greek objections to Macedonia joining the alliance. Zaev also floated the idea of Macedonia joining the alliance under the provisional name it used at the United Nations.[13] The naming dispute was resolved with the Prespa Agreement in June 2018 under which the country adpoted the name North Macedonia, which was supported by a referendum in September 2018. On 11 July 2018, NATO invited the republic to begin membership talks, saying the country could join the organisation once the naming agreement had been implemented.[14] Formal accession talks began on 18 October 2018.[15] On 6 February 2019, the permanent representatives to NATO of the member states signed a protocol on the accession of North Macedonia to NATO.[3]

Macedonian Prime Minister Zoran Zaev, alongside NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, in Skopje on 3 June 2019, said that he expected the ratification process to be finalised by the end of October.[16] By that time North Macedonia was expected to join NATO in early 2020, with the alliance publicly reassuring the country its accession would go ahead.[17] North Macedonia was given a seat at the 2019 London summit alongside other NATO members and was represented by a delegation headed by Prime Minister Zoran Zaev.[18] On 11 February 2020, the Macedonian Sobranie unanimously approved the North Atlantic Treaty, with 114 votes in favour, no abstentions and no opposition.[19][20][21] Due to its political crisis, Spain was the last country to ratify the accession protocol, which it did on 19 March 2020.[21][18] North Macedonia subsequently signed the instrument of accession and became a member state on 27 March 2020.[22][23][24]

Accession

Negotiation progress

Event Date
Partnership for Peace 15 November 1995[25]
Membership Action Plan 19 April 1999[26]
Invitation to join 11 July 2018[27]
Accession protocol 6 February 2019[3]
Treaty in force 19 March 2020[28]
Full membership 27 March 2020[29][24]

Ratification process

Signatory Date Institution In favour Against AB Deposited[1][30] Reference
Albania Albania 14 February 2019 Parliament 140 0 0 1 April 2019 [31]
20 February 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [32]
Belgium Belgium 25 April 2019 Chamber of Representatives 131 2 2 6 June 2019 [33]
17 May 2019 Royal Assent Granted [34]
Bulgaria Bulgaria 20 February 2019 National Assembly 140 0 0 18 March 2019 [35]
23 February 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [36]
Canada Canada 19 June 2019 House of Commons Passed 19 June 2019 [37]
Croatia Croatia 1 March 2019 Parliament 116 2 0 22 May 2019 [38]
6 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [39]
Czech Republic Czech Republic 12 June 2019 Senate 52 0 13 25 October 2019 [40]
12 September 2019 Chamber of Deputies 124 8 16 [41]
8 October 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [42]
Denmark Denmark 26 March 2019 Folketing 97 0 9 12 April 2019 [43]
Estonia Estonia 12 June 2019 Riigikogu 76 0 17 18 July 2019 [44]
17 June 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [45]
France France 17 October 2019 Senate Passed 9 December 2019 [46]
21 November 2019 National Assembly Passed [47]
28 November 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [48]
Germany Germany 6 June 2019 Bundestag 545 160 4 21 August 2019 [49]
28 June 2019 Bundesrat Passed [50]
4 July 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [51]
Greece Greece 8 February 2019 Parliament 153 140 1 21 February 2019 [52]
15 February 2019 Presidential Promulgation Granted [53]
Hungary Hungary 25 June 2019 National Assembly 153 0 0 24 July 2019 [54]
27 June 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [55]
Iceland Iceland 24 October 2019 Althing 32 0 11 14 November 2019 [56]
Italy Italy 25 June 2019 Chamber of Deputies 442 0 1 2 December 2019 [57]
16 October 2019 Senate 237 0 2 [58]
24 October 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [59]
Latvia Latvia 16 May 2019 Saeima 81 0 0 4 June 2019 [60]
22 May 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [61]
Lithuania Lithuania 14 March 2019 Seimas 92 0 0 30 May 2019 [62]
20 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [63]
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2 July 2019 Chamber of Deputies 58 2 0 25 July 2019 [64]
12 July 2019 Grand Ducal Promulgation Granted [65]
Montenegro Montenegro 1 March 2019 Parliament 44 0 0 18 April 2019 [66]
4 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [67]
Netherlands Netherlands 4 July 2019 House of Representatives 129 21 0 19 November 2019 [68]
12 November 2019 Senate 59 16 0 [69]
13 November 2019 Royal Promulgation Granted [70]
Norway Norway 5 June 2019 Storting 96 1 0 19 July 2019 [71]
14 June 2019 Royal Assent Granted [72]
Poland Poland 4 April 2019 Sejm 388 1 2 1 July 2019 [73]
11 April 2019 Senate 59 0 0 [74]
25 April 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [75]
Portugal Portugal 15 May 2019 National Assembly 193 36 1 8 October 2019 [76]
7 August 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [77]
Romania Romania 27 February 2019 Chamber of Deputies 273 0 0 18 July 2019 [78]
13 March 2019 Senate 96 0 0 [79]
18 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [80]
Slovakia Slovakia 4 April 2019 National Council 111 13 1 22 May 2019 [81]
24 April 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [82]
Slovenia Slovenia 12 February 2019 National Assembly 72 12 0 22 March 2019 [83]
20 February 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [84]
Spain Spain 27 February 2020 Congress of Deputies 279 1 51 19 March 2020 [85]
17 March 2020 Senate 243 0 21 [86]
17 March 2020 Royal Assent Granted [87]
Turkey Turkey 11 July 2019 National Assembly 255 7 1 9 December 2019 [88]
24 July 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [89]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 16 October 2019 Parliament Passed[a] 24 October 2019 [91]
United States United States 22 October 2019 Senate 91 2 0 29 November 2019 [92][93]
26 November 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [94]
Note
  1. ^ In the United Kingdom, there is no requirement for a formal law approving of treaties before their ratification, but the Ponsonby Rule is that they are laid before Parliament with an explanatory memorandum.[90] The treaty was laid before parliament on 27 June 2019, and the last day a negative resolution could be passed was 16 October 2019.

Public opinion

White spray painted text on a tan wall that reads "НАТО СЕ УБИЈЦИ ЈАС СУМ СПАС ЗА МАКЕДОНИЈА#БОЈКОТ" which translates to "NATO are killers. I am for the salvation of Macedonia.#Boycott."
Anti-NATO graffiti in Ohrid in July 2018, translating to "NATO are killers. I am for the salvation of Macedonia. #Boycott."

During the Kosovo War of 1999, the Macedonian government maintained a pro-NATO position.[95] A majority of the population of the Republic of Macedonia criticised the government stance and opposed NATO intervention in Kosovo due to fears over irredentism from ethnic Albanians within the country, the unstable economy, disruption of trade brought about by war, and Slavic solidarity with Serbs.[96] Prime Minister Ljubčo Georgievski stated during the war that anti-NATO sentiment was the "second biggest threat" to the country after the arrival of Albanian refugees from Kosovo.[97] The country's Albanian population supported NATO and its intervention to assist the Albanians of Kosovo.[95]

In 2008, a poll following the NATO summit showed that 82.5% of ethnic Macedonian citizens opposed changing their country's constitutional name in order to join NATO.[98] NATO membership in general in 2008 was supported by 85.2% of the population.[99] Elections were called following the 2008 summit, resulting in further support for the center-right pro-NATO party, VMRO-DPMNE. The elections were marred by violence that attracted criticism from NATO members.[100]

In a statewide 2010 survey, 80.02% of respondents said they would vote for the Republic of Macedonia to become part of NATO if a referendum on accession were to take place.[101] In another survey, some 65% of ethnic Macedonians expressed that they opposed a name change of the state as being the price for NATO membership.[101]

In a 2016 poll, some 68% of ethnic Macedonians supported joining NATO, possibly under the FYROM name.[102] Albanians of North Macedonia harbour strongly pro-NATO sentiments.[103]

See also

References

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