Orders of magnitude (voltage)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various voltage levels.

SI prefix Factor (volt) Value Item
Micro- 10−7 500 nV Change in nerve cell potential caused by opening a single acetylcholine receptor channel[1]
10−6 2 μV Noise in an EEG taken at the scalp[2]
Milli- 10−5 10–100 μV Peak-to-peak amplitude of an average EEG taken at the scalp[2][3]
15 μV Minimum terrestrial digital-TV RF antenna signal (−85 dBm over 75 Ω)[4][5]
56 μV Minimum terrestrial analog-TV RF antenna signal (35 dB[μV])[6][7][8]
10−4 500–1000 μV Miniature endplate potentials, spontaneous fluctuations in neuron potentials[1]
10−3 1–2 mV Potential created at ambient temperatures from K Type Thermocouple
Centi- 10−2 ~10–50 mV Ripple voltage in the output of a good DC power supply[9]
75 mV Nerve cell resting potential[10]
Deci- 10−1 320 mV Typical voltage reference level in consumer audio electronics (0.316 V rms)[11]
~500 mV Typical MOSFET threshold voltage for modern processes[12]
~700 mV Forward voltage drop of normal silicon diodes[13]
800–1000 mV Typical positive supply voltage of a low voltage CMOS digital integrated circuit[14]
900 mV Lemon battery cell (made with copper and zinc electrodes)[15]
N/A 100 0-3 V Magnitudes of standard reduction potentials in chemistry[16]
1.5 V Alkaline battery AA, AAA, C or D battery[17]
3.3 V One of the most common low voltage CMOS digital circuit supply voltages.
5 V USB power, used for example to charge a cell phone or a digital camera.[18] Also one of the most common digital circuit supply voltages for both TTL and CMOS technologies.
6 V A common voltage for medium-size electric lanterns.[19] A voltage for older electric systems of automobiles.
Deca- 101 12 V Typical car battery[20]
Hecto- 102 100–240 V Domestic wall socket voltage[21]
600 V Electric eel sends this voltage in an average attack
630 V London Underground railway tracks
Kilo- 103 2450 V Electric chair execution in Nebraska[22]
3–10 kV Electric fence[23]
3kV Voltage required to generate every 1mm of electric arc
3–35 kV Accelerating voltage for a typical television cathode ray tube[24]
4160-34,500 V Typical voltages in North America for distribution of power from distribution substations to end users[25]
104 15 kV Train 15 kV AC railway electrification overhead lines, ​1623 Hz
25 kV European high-speed train overhead power lines[26]
33 kV Maximum voltage allowed in an electricity distribution grid after 1919 in the UK until 1926[27] (still used for heavy industry and factory overhead cable distribution systems)[28]
69–230 kV Range used in North American power high-voltage transmission substations[25]
105 345–800 kV Range used in EHV power transmission systems[29][30]
800 kV Lowest voltage used by ultra-high voltage (UHV) power transmission systems[31][30]
Mega- 106 3 MV Used by the ultra-high voltage electron microscope at Osaka University[32]
107 25.5 MV The largest man-made DC voltage – produced in a Van de Graaff generator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory[33]
108 100 MV The potential difference between the ends of a typical lightning bolt[34]
Peta- 1015 7 PV Voltage around a particular energetic highly magnetized rotating neutron star[35]
N/A 1027 1.04×1027 V Planck voltage

SI multiple

SI multiples of volt (V)
Submultiples Multiples
Value SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name
10−1 V dV decivolt 101 V daV decavolt
10−2 V cV centivolt 102 V hV hectovolt
10−3 V mV millivolt 103 V kV kilovolt
10−6 V µV microvolt 106 V MV megavolt
10−9 V nV nanovolt 109 V GV gigavolt
10−12 V pV picovolt 1012 V TV teravolt
10−15 V fV femtovolt 1015 V PV petavolt
10−18 V aV attovolt 1018 V EV exavolt
10−21 V zV zeptovolt 1021 V ZV zettavolt
10−24 V yV yoctovolt 1024 V YV yottavolt


  1. ^ a b "Synaptic transmission". NeuroWiki. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  2. ^ a b Epstein, Charles M. "Home built EEG". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  3. ^ Ernst Neidermeyer (1999). "9. The Normal EEG of the Waking Adult" (PDF). In Niedermeyer, Ernst; Lopes da Silva, F. (eds.). Electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications, and related (4th ed.). pp. 149–173. ISBN 978-0-683-30284-4. Retrieved 1 November 2011. The amplitudes of the scalp EEG are markedly reduced and lie between 10 and 100 μV
  4. ^ eecs.berkeley.edu - Spectrum Sensing, Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges, page 82, 2005
  5. ^ Decibel#Voltage P=pow(10,-3)*pow(10,(dBmW)/10) ; U=pow(R*P,1/2) ; R=75 Ω ; pow(10,-3)*pow(10,(-85)/10) = 3.162278 pW ; pow(75*pow(10,-3)*pow(10,(-85)/10) , 1/2) = 15.400351 μV
  6. ^ as76.net - How to use the booster. (To see the terrestrial digital broadcasting beautifully.), 2011-12-01
  7. ^ maxim-ic.com - CATV dBm, dBmV, and dBμV Conversions - Tutorial - Maxim, 2002-07-17
  8. ^ Decibel#Voltage pow(10,-6)*pow(10,35/20) = 56 μV
  9. ^ "DC Power Supply Specifications". Radio-Electronics.Com. Retrieved 10 November 2011. Most good supplies should offer noise and ripple figures of better than 10 mV rms and for switching supplies figures of 50mV or less should be achievable
  10. ^ Bullock, Orkand, and Grinnell, pp. 150–151; Junge, pp. 89–90; Schmidt-Nielsen, p. 484
  11. ^ "Pro Audio Reference D". AES. Retrieved 2017-12-17. -10 dBV Standard voltage reference level for consumer and some pro audio use
  12. ^ Ortiz-Conde, A.; et al. (2002). "A review of recent MOSFET threshold voltage extraction methods". Microelectronics Reliability. 42 (4–5): 583–596. doi:10.1016/S0026-2714(02)00027-6. p. 594.
  13. ^ "Diodes". The Electronics Club. Retrieved 11 November 2011. about 0.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon
  14. ^ "Intel Xeon E3-1200v3 family datasheet, a typical LVCMOS chip" (PDF). Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  15. ^ "Lemon Battery". Hila Science Camp. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  16. ^ Nave, Rod. "Standard Electrode Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25°C". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  17. ^ David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook of Batteries, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-135978-8 chapter 4
  18. ^ "About USB-IF". USB Implementers Forum, Inc. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  19. ^ Eveready Battery Company. "EVR-1209 Engineering Data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
  20. ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, pages 803–807
  21. ^ "ita.doc.gov - Electric current abroad" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
  22. ^ "Electrocution protocol questioned". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Electric Fencing for Pastured Livestock" (PDF). Soil & Crop Improvement Association of Nova Scotia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  24. ^ "Voltage of a Television Picture Tube". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  25. ^ a b "Electric Power eTool: Illustrated Glossary: Substations". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (Voltage of a Television Picture Tube). Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  26. ^ Caltrain-Electrification Project
  27. ^ Hannah, Leslie (1979). Electricity Before Nationalisation: A study of the development of the electricity supply industry in Britain to 1948. Macmillan. p. 109. ISBN 9781349034437.
  28. ^ "UK electricity networks" (PDF). Postnote 163. London: The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. October 2001. p. 1. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Definitions: E". Bonneville Power Administration. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  30. ^ a b Gönen, T. (2014). Electrical Power Transmission System Engineering: Analysis and Design (3 ed.). CRC Press. p. 3,36. ISBN 9781482232233.
  31. ^ "Definitions: TUV". Bonneville Power Administration. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Features of 3 MV Ultrahigh voltage electron microscope". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
  33. ^ http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/6446725-T101Ai Oak Ridge Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1988
  34. ^ "Voltage of a Lightning Bolt". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  35. ^ "Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar". Chandra X-ray Observatory Center. September 6, 2001. Retrieved 7 March 2010.

External links

This page was last updated at 2021-04-18 14:23, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari