Outline of globalization

Eastern Telegraph Company 1901 chart of undersea telegraph cabling. An example of modern globalizing technology in the beginning of the 20th century.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the broad, interdisciplinary subject of globalization:

Globalization (or globalisation) – processes of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[1][2] Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

Global studies

Global studies – interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary academic study of globalizing forces and trends. Global studies may include the investigation of one or more aspects of globalization, but tend to concentrate on how globalizing trends are redefining the relationships between states, organizations, societies, communities, and individuals, creating new challenges that cannot be solved by nations or markets alone.[4] Study of the factors contributing to globalization may originate in many academic concentrations, such as political science, economics, sociology, and many others.


Animated map showing the development of colonial empires from 1492 to present

History of globalization – generally broken-down into three periods: Archaic, Proto-globalization, and Modern.

  • The Archaic period is defined as events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly 1600.
  • The period of Proto-globalization roughly spans the years between 1600 and 1800. It was largely shaped in this era by the operations of colonialism.
  • The Modern period of globalization covers from the 19th century until the present time. Imperialism and industrialization have figured largely in shaping modern globalizing forces and trends.

Globalization concepts

Links below are to articles, unless otherwise specified.

Globalization-related theories

Since globalization is not an independent phenomenon but is highly interrelated with world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture, explanations of why globalization occurs and what the effects of globalization are or can be expected are related to theories ranging from economic development to revolutionary socialism.

Pyramid of Capitalist System, 1911 Industrial Worker publication advocating industrial unionism. It also shows the critique of capitalism.

Globalization-related indices

Aspects of globalization

Global business organization

International business development and the organization of business and trade worldwide are fundamental aspects of globalization and the development of globalizing systems.

Singapore skyline
Singapore, the top country in the Enabling Trade Index, embraced globalization and became a highly developed country
Red: U.S. corporate profits after tax. Blue: U.S. nonresidential business investment, both as fractions of GDP, 1989–2012. Wealth concentration of corporate profits in global tax havens due to tax avoidance spurred by imposition of austerity measures can stall investment, inhibiting further growth.[5]

Economic globalization

Economic globalization

Of the factors influencing the duration of economic growth in both developed and developing countries, income equality has a more beneficial impact than trade openness, sound political institutions, and foreign investment.[6]

Economic globalization – increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital. International economic activities and institutions that influence or characterize economic globalization include:

Sociocultural globalization

All aspects of globalization are essentially sociocultural in nature. Here, aspects of the globalization of culture are detailed, including cultural diversity, cultural homogenization and its backlash, as well as multiculturalism, multilingualism, global civics, world governance and other political developments and social movements related to globalization.

Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Perilli in Toronto, Canada. Four identical sculptures are located in Buffalo City, South Africa; Changchun, China; Sarajevo, Bosnia and Sydney, Australia
Shakira, a Colombian multilingual singer-songwriter, playing outside her home country.
Japanese McDonald's
A McDonald's in Osaka, Japan illustrates the McDonaldization of global society

Workforce globalization

Along with the globalization of business comes a new spatial division of labor, which occurs when production processes are no longer confined to national economies and labor becomes sourced from different parts of the globe. This global workforce has implications ranging from immigration policy to basic human and labor rights.

Brazilian multiple entry visa in a US passport, with immigration stamps from Brazil, France, and the United States.
Entry tourist visa to China

Global natural environment

The natural environment can be contrasted with the built environment, comprising the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans. In the age of globalization, few absolutely natural environments remain. Human challenges to the natural environment, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species require at least transnational and, often, global solutions.

Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.
The three nested systems of sustainability – the economy wholly contained by society, wholly contained by the biophysical environment. Clickable.

Globalization issues

Processes of globalization present humankind with many issues that are considered problematic in at least one culture or society, and often multiple societies.

World Bank Protester, Jakarta, Indonesia.
The global digital divide: Computers per 100 people.

By location

Categories about globalization-related organizations

Globalization-related lists

Works about globalization

Persons influential in globalization

See also



  1. ^ Al-Rodhan, R.F. Nayef and Gérard Stoudmann. (2006). Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition. Archived 2012-11-19 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Albrow, Martin and Elizabeth King (eds.) (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage. ISBN 978-0803983243 p. 8. "...all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society."
  3. ^ Stever, H. Guyford (1972). "Science, Systems, and Society." Journal of Cybernetics, 2(3):1–3. doi:10.1080/01969727208542909
  4. ^ Harth, Chris. (2005). 'Struggling to Grasp a Moving Target: Global Studies in the US and Emergent International Landscapes.' Interim Report Prepared for Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.
  5. ^ "Aggregate Demand, Instability and Growth" Review of Keynesian Economics, January 2013 (see also this review of the paper)
  6. ^ Berg, Andrew G.; Ostry, Jonathan D. (2011). "Equality and Efficiency". Finance and Development. International Monetary Fund. 48 (3). Retrieved September 10, 2012.

Further reading

External links

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