Panoan languages

southwestern Amazon
Linguistic classificationPano–Tacanan?
  • Panoan
Pano-Takanan languages.png
Panoan languages (dark green) and Takanan languages (light green). Spots indicate documented locations.

Panoan (also Pánoan, Panoano, Panoana, Páno) is a family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, and Bolivia. It is possibly a branch of a larger Pano–Tacanan family.

Genetic relations

The Panoan family is generally believed to be related to the Tacanan family, forming with it Pano–Tacanan, though this has not yet been established (Loos 1999).

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Kechua, Mapudungun, Moseten-Tsimane, Tukano, Uru-Chipaya, Harakmbet, Arawak, Kandoshi, and Pukina language families due to contact.[1]


There are some 18 extant and 14 extinct Panoan languages.[2] In the list of Panoan languages below adapted from Fleck (2013), (†) means extinct, and (*) obsolescent (no longer spoken daily). Dialects are listed in parentheses.

Boundaries between the Poyanawa, Chama, and Headwaters groups are somewhat blurred. Karipuna and Môa River Nawa may not be distinct languages, and Chiriba may not be Panoan at all.

Hundreds of other Panoan "languages" have been reported in the literature. These are names of groups that may have been ethnically Panoan, but whose language is unattested. They sometimes are assumed to be Panoan on no other evidence than that the name ends in -nawa or -bo. A few, such as Maya (Pisabo), are unattested but reported to be mutually intelligible with a known Panoan language (in this case Matsés).[citation needed] The people speaking one of these supposed languages, Kontanáwa,[3] was rediscovered in 2002. However, no linguistic information is available, and it is not known if they speak a distinct language.[4]

Oliveira (2014)

Internal classification by Oliveira (2014: 123):[5]

  • Group 1: Kashíbo
  • Group 2
    • Shípibo-Kónibo, Kapanáwa
    • Marúbo (?)
  • Group 3: Chákobo, Kaxararí (?)
  • Group 4: Yamináwa, Chanináwa, Sharanáwa
  • Group 5: Shanenáwa, Katukína
  • Group 6: Poyanáwa (?), Amawáka
  • Group 7
    • Kaxinawá, Marináwa
    • Yawanawá
  • Group 8: Mayorúna, Matís, Korúbo

Jolkesky (2016)

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[1]

(† = extinct)


Much of the confusion surrounding Panoan languages is the number of homonyms among different languages. The principal ambiguous names are as follows:[2]

Panoan languages with the same name
Name Location or other name Language
Kapanawa on the Tapiche dialect of Shipibo-Konibo
on the Juruá dialect of Ibuaçu Kashinawa
Kashinawa on the Ibuaçu Headwaters group
on the Tarauacá Mainline branch
Kulina on the Curuçá Mayoruna branch
of São Paulo de Olivençá Mainline branch
Marubo in the Javari Basin Mainline branch
of Maucallacta [no data] Mayoruna branch
Remo on the Blanco Nawa group
on the Môa Headwaters group
on the Jaquirana Poyanawa group
Southern Remo [no data] Chama group
Sinabo of the Mamoré Bolivian group
of the Ucayali Basin Chama group
Katukina Waninawa Marubo group
of Feijo' (Shanenawa) dialect of Yaminawa
Nawa on the Môa [little data] Poyanawa group
Parkenawa dialect of Yaminawa
Maroyuna (various) three languages in list above
Mates Mates
Barbudo [no data] Chama group
Demushbo Matses group
Chema dialect of Curuçá Kulina

Neighboring languages of other families may also share the names of Panoan language. The table below ignores other homonyms further afield:

Non-Panoan languages with the same names as Panoan languages
Family Language
Arawakan Kanamari, Kasharari, Kunibo, Mayoruna, Pakaguara
Takanan Chama, Arasa, Atsahuaca, Yamiaka
Katukinan Katukina, Kanamari
Tupian Karipuna, Katukinarú
Arawan Kulina, Arawá
Harakmbut Arasairi


Below is a full list of Panoan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[6]

Northern languages
  • Pano / Pánobo - spoken in the village of Contamana on the Ucayali River, Loreto province, Peru.
  • Maruba / Maxuruna / Mayoruna / Pelado / Dallus - spoken on the Maruba River and Jandiatuba River, state of Amazonas.
  • Culino - extinct language once spoken between the Jutaí River, Javarí River, and Jandiatuba River, Amazonas.
  • Panau - spoken by only a few families in Seringal Barão, Rio Branco, territory of Acre, Brazil. (Unattested.)
  • Cashibo / Cacataibo / Caxivo / Hagueti - spoken on the Pachitea River, Pisqui River, and Aguaytía River, Loreto, Peru.
  • Manamabobo - extinct language once spoken on the Pachitea River, Peru. (Unattested.)
  • Carapacho / Caliseca - once spoken on the Carapacho River, Peru. (Unattested.)
  • Pichobo - once spoken at the mouth of the Paguamigua River in Peru. (Unattested.)
  • Sobolbo / Bolbo - once spoken on the Cohengua River, Peru. (Unattested.)
  • Mochobo - once spoken between the Guanie River and Guarimi River. (Unattested.)
  • Maspo - once spoken on the Taco River and Manipaboro River. (Unattested.)
  • Comobo / Univitsa - once spoken in the same region on the Inua River and Unini River. (Unattested.)
  • Conibo / Cunibo / Curibeo - spoken along the Ucayali River between 8° 30' and 10° latitude.
  • Cháma / Manava / Chipeo / Setebo / Shipibo / Puinahva - spoken on the Ucayali River north of the Conibo tribe.
  • Nocamán - spoken at the sources of the Chesco River, Loreto.
  • Ruanagua - spoken on the Corjuania River, Loreto. (Unattested.)
  • Capanagua - spoken on the Tapiche River and Blanco River, Loreto.
  • Busquipani - once spoken on the Alacrán River, Loreto. (Unattested.)
  • Custanáwa - spoken on the upper course of the Purus River near the mouth of the Curanja River, Loreto. (Unattested.)
  • Espino - spoken on the Curumaha River in the same region. (Unattested.)
  • Yura - once spoken on the Piqueyaco River, Loreto. (Unattested.)
  • Marináwa - spoken on the Furnaya River, Loreto. (Pike and Scott 1962.)
  • Xaranáwa - spoken on the Curanja River, Loreto. (Unattested.)
  • Canawari - extinct language once spoken on the Curumaha River and Rixalá River, Acre territory, Brazil
  • Nucuini / Remo / Rheno - spoken at the sources of the Javari River and on the Moenalco River and Ipixuna River[disambiguation needed], state of Amazonas.
  • Amahuaca / Sayaco / Impetineri - spoken on the Urubamba River and Ucayali River, Loreto, and on the Purus River and Juruá River, Acre.
  • Mastináhua - spoken on the Purus River in the same territory. (Unattested.)
  • Cachináua / Huñikui - spoken between the Embira River, Liberdade River, and Tarauacá River, state of Amazonas.
  • Tuxináua - spoken on the Embira River and Humaitá River, Acre.
  • Camanáwa - on the Môa River in Acre. (Unattested.)
  • Pacanáwa - spoken at the sources of the Embira River, Acre. (Unattested.)
  • Nehanáwa - spoken by a small tribe on the Jordão River, Acre.
  • Nastanáwa - spoken on the upper course of the Jordão River.
  • Cuyanáwa - spoken between the Môa River and Paraná dos Mouros River, Acre territory. (Unattested.)
  • Sacuya - once spoken between the Juruá River and Tamaya River, Acre. (Unattested.)
  • Xanindáua - spoken by a small tribe on the Riozinho River, Acre. (Unattested.)
  • Coronáwa - spoken in the Acre territory, but exact location unknown. (Unattested.)
  • Yauavo - once spoken between the Tejo River and Aturia River, Acre. (Unattested.)
Yaminaua group
Sensi group
Central group
  • Yamiaca / Haauñeiri - spoken by a small tribe on the Yaguarmayo River, department of Madre de Dios, Peru.
  • Arazaire - language spoken by a few families in the same region on the Marcapata River.
  • Atsahuaca / Chaspa - spoken on the Carama River in Peru.
  • Araua - extinct language once spoken on the Chiva River, territory of Colonia, Bolivia. (Unattested.)
Eastern group
  • Chacobo - spoken around Lake Rogoaguado, Beni province, Bolivia.
  • Capuibo - once spoken on the Biata River in Beni province, Bolivia. (Unattested.)
  • Pacaguara - language now probably extinct, once spoken between the Beni River and Abuña River.
  • Sinabo / Shenabu / Gritones - language now probably extinct, once spoken on the Mamoré River near Los Almendrales, Beni Province. (Unattested.)
  • Caripuna / Jaunavô / Shakáre / Éloe / Yacariá - spoken in the nineteenth century along the Madeira River and the sources of the Beni River, now only in a single village at the mouth of the Mutumparaná River, Rondônia.
  • Pama / Pamainá - language of an unknown tribe of the Caldeirão River, territory of Rondônia. (Unattested.)

Grammatical features

Body-part prefixation

Exceptional to Panoan languages' predominantly suffixal morphology are sets of approximately 30 morphemes primarily referring to parts or features of prototypical human and animal bodies (and, by analogical extension, of botanicals, manufactures, landscapes, and abstract space) which have been found to occur in almost all attested languages of the family (Fleck 2006: 59; Ferreira 2007, 2008; Amarante Ribeiro and Cândido 2008; Zariquiey and Fleck 2012: 385–386).

That these monosyllabic forms are productively affixed to the front of verbal, nominal, or adjectival roots has led many Panoanists to describe them as prefixes (e.g. Prost 1967 and Zingg 1998 [for Chakobo]; Faust 1973, Loriot et al. 1993, and Valenzuela 2003 [for Shipibo-Konibo]; Hyde 1980 [for Amawaka]; Eakin 1991[for Yaminawa]), while the forms' resemblance and loose semantic correspondence to unbound, polysyllabic 'body-part terms' has led others to describe them as incorporated nouns (e.g. Loos 1999). More recent and detailed analyses of this feature in Matses (Fleck 2006) and Kashibo-Kakataibo (Zariquiey and Fleck 2012) have demonstrated that most body-part prefixes in these languages are not readily analyzable as synchronic allomorphs of the nouns they resemble.

Many Panoan body-part prefixes semantically encompass a range of denotata beyond the strictly 'corporeal' by means of analogical extension. In Matses, for example, the prefix an- corresponds to the nouns ana 'mouth, tongue, palm (of hand), sole (of foot), (arm)pit'; anmaëşh 'gill slits (of fish)'; and anşhantuk 'swampy depression in the ground'; but can itself be glossed also as 'cavity, concave surface, interior, underside'; and 'center (of path of stream)' (Fleck 2006: 64). In the examples below, the prefix an- with the verb root kiad 'learn' expresses the learning of a specifically 'oral activity' while the prefix më- 'hand, mortar, forearm, wrist, projecting carpal bones, elbow, finger, knuckles, fingernail, branch' expresses the learning of a specifically 'manual' one:

'I learned with respect to (my) mouth', i.e., 'I learned an oral activity' (a language, to speak, a song, to sing, to recite the alphabet, to whistle, to eat a type of food, etc.) (Fleck 2006: 78)
'I learned to weave, write, do math problems, fire shotgun, fletch arrows, or other manual tasks' (Fleck 2006: 78)

The following example illustrates how an- can express locative information in non-corporeal, topographical space:

nëid-ø an-san-aşh we-ta ø ke-pa-ak ka-denne-k ke-onda-şh
this.one-ABS center-put:PL.O-after:S/A>S lie-IMPER 3ABS say-TOP.CONT-NARR.PAST tell-REM.PAST.INDIC tell-DIST.PAST-3
'"Put this one in the middle [of the path] and then lie down!" he [the moon] said, they used to tell, I was told' (Fleck 2006: 80).

While body-part prefixes in Kashibo-Kakataibo, as in Matses, are highly productive with verbs, they are used regularly with only a modest array of adjectives and nouns (Fleck 2006: 72; Zariquiey and Fleck 2012: 394–5). Zariquiey and Fleck (2012: 394) note that the Kashibo-Kakataibo "words for 'skin', 'hair', and 'flesh'" are regularly prefixed:

kapë të-şhaka mëra-aşh ...
caiman neck-skin.ABS find-S/A>S
'finding the caiman's neck skin ...' (Zariquiey and Fleck 2012: 395).

Due to the paucity of detailed studies of Panoan body-part prefixes, explanations of their grammaticalization remain largely speculative. Fleck has hypothesized that "Panoan (verb) prefixation evolved from past noun incorporation that co-existed with noun-noun and noun-adjective compounding that involved synchronic reduction of body-part roots" (2006: 92). In light of their analysis of Kashibo-Kakataibo prefixation, Zariquiey and Fleck present two diachronic scenarios to orient future comparative work: "(1) prefixation evolved from productive noun incorporation (prefixes have come from longer body-part nouns); or (2) Proto-Panoan body-part terms were monosyllabic forms that became bound, and most of the current body-part terms were later built up from these" (2012: 408).


Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[6]

Language Branch head tooth tongue foot one two three
Pánobo I mápu séta hána tal'i hawícho dawuó muken
Maruba I mápu chitá ána tái pazü dabui muken
Culino I mazu sita anú whüta uitü rabü taküma
Cashieo I mapo dzeta hana tak achapré rabue itsa
Conibo I mápo seta hana tai achapré rabue
Cháma I mápuro seta hana tal hávicho ravué pike
Nocamán I mápuro téta ána tai aindzinige rawué
Capanagua II mápu shríta hána tahö hawichu rawík
Canawari II
Nucuini II mapú sheta aná taki usichari narabe narana
Amaguaca II mápu teta haná taku wuistéra rábue
Caxinaua II mápo xeltá hana taö böste rabö nadabö
Tuxináua II mapoː anan tai
Nehanáwa II mapu mátya húna tahʔ
Yawanáwa Yaminaua II mapo sheta hána
Xanináwa Yaminaua II mi-fushha shʔta háda tahʔ
Wanináwa Yaminaua II mapu shötah ana tahö
Sensi Yaminaua II omátsi küödsa yáta nawuístikoe rawué naravuekoe
Yaminaua Yaminaua I woshka shata hanka tai huísti rháhui mapo
Poyanáwa Yaminaua I vouká ritá andá tae uesteː arabiː aranan
Yumanáwa Yaminaua I buska sheta xánda táha
Paran-Nawa Yaminaua I buska sheta hána tahe uste rane
Nixináwa Yaminaua I vuske xéta hánda
Chacobo Eastern mápu shíta hána tái vuístita dávita téreshen
Pacaguara Eastern mapo tséna xána tahe nata rabue
Caripuna Eastern mápo setá haná taé pazü taboe muken
Yamiaca Central réta hána tauö pusi bota
Arazaire Central mashahue haná taé nunchina buta
Atsahuaca Central reta hána tauö nikatsu dafuina shukarama
Language Branch water sun maize tapir house
Pánobo I ompásko wári töki awuá taping
Maruba I uóka vári shuki awa shubo
Culino I yaku warü chüki ghai subichü
Cashieo I ompas vari riki aua tóbu
Conibo I honeg huari serke auhá shrobo
Cháma I umpas bari riki ahua tobo
Nocamán I ompás wári téki awuá shóu
Capanagua II yéne bari tríki awa shúbu
Canawari II wáka warí xemá
Nucuini II bali beni auá hubu
Amaguaca II wákoma wádik töki á tsapás
Caxinaua II upash bari shöki awa tapás
Tuxináua II auá ushá
Nehanáwa II upash wári hʔw
Yawanáwa Yaminaua II wáka shʔne shʔki puiwa
Xanináwa Yaminaua II hʔd fwaui shʔhi awa pʔsh
Wanináwa Yaminaua II wakah wari shöke awi shubu
Sensi Yaminaua II enipáxa varíxi shínki áwua puöxe
Yaminaua Yaminaua I huaka wani shiki áhua shúhuo
Poyanáwa Yaminaua I wáka vori vouerou auá utá
Yumanáwa Yaminaua I hónde wári xáti á mapítc
Paran-Nawa Yaminaua I umpash wári sheki áwa shobo
Nixináwa Yaminaua I wákuma óari sheki a
Chacobo Eastern kämä huári shéki áhuara shóbo
Pacaguara Eastern xéne bari sheki ahuana shobo
Caripuna Eastern ompasua bári shröki auána shróba
Yamiaca Central éna huari húki shanoya shopo
Arazaire Central humapasha fuari hoki shauvi
Atsahuaca Central umapásha huari höki ahuana shopo


Reconstruction ofPanoan languages

Below are Proto-Panoan reconstructions by de Oliveira (2014).[7] For the full list of original Portuguese glosses, see the corresponding Portuguese article.

Proto-Panoan reconstructions by de Oliveira (2014)
gloss Proto-Panoan
'sun' *βaɽi
'star' *wis(...)
'corn' *ʂɨki
'to make, to kill' *ʔak-
'capybara' *ʔamɨ(n)
'big, large' *ʔani
'paca (Cuniculus paca)' *ʔano
'intransitive concord suffix' *-ʔaʂ
'kind of poison' *ʔaʂ(an)-
'tapir (Tapirus terrestris)' *ʔawaɽ
'woman, wife' *ʔawi(n)
'woman' *ʔaw̆iβo
'to swallow, to inhale' *ʔaya-
'I (1sg)' *ʔɨ
'big, large' *ʔɨwa
'louse' *ʔia
'lake' *ʔian
'owner' *ʔiʔβo
'bird species' *ʔiʔtsak
'hot, heat' *ʔitsis
'heat, hot' *yoʔo
'hot' *ʂa(n)a
'to embrace, to keep in one's arms' *ʔikok-
'to keep/carry in one's arms' *ʔikoʔiko-
'to rise, to go up' *ʔira-
'livestock, domestic animal' *ʔinak
'to give' *ʔinar-
'jaguar species' *ʔi(n)o
'fish species (of family Loricariidae)' *ʔipo
'pain, to hurt' *ʔisir-
'blackbird species (of family Icteridae)' *ʔisko
'monkey species (of family Atelidae)' *ʔiso
'monkey species' *ɽiɽo
'howler monkey (monkey species)' *ɽoʔo
'monkey species' *ʃiro
'monkey species (Callitrichidae?)' *sipi
'monkey species' *wasa
'to run' *ʔisto-
'very, much' *ʔitsak
'king vulture' *ʔiʃmi(n)
'heavy' *ʔiwɨ
'stingray' *ʔiwi
'tick' *hoʔpoʂ
'rain' *ʔoi
'to look' *ʔoi(n)-
'to cough' *ʔok(o)-
'to know, to learn' *ʔo(n)a(n)-
'freshwater (lit. new liquid)' *ʔoma-paʂa
'to laugh' *ʔosa(n)-
'to sleep' *ʔoʂ(a)-
'shadow' *ʔota
'to suck' *ʔoyo-
'he, that' *ha(a)
'to run, to flee' *haβa(t)-
'heron species' *haka
'to tread (on)' *hamak-
'tongue' *hana
'to vomit' *ha(n)a(n)-
'name' *harɨ
'curassow (bird species of family Cracidae)' *hãsi(n)
'opening' *hãʂaβa
'this much' *hatit
'3PL' *hato
'what, which' *haw(ɨ/a)
'his, her(s)' *hawɨn
'path, way, forest trail' *βaʔi
'night, dark' *βaʔki(ʃ)i
'dark, night' *yamɨ(t)
'cloth (?)' *βatʃi
'grazed, cleared' *βai(C)
'son, child' *βakʷɨ
'foam' *βakoʂ
'to plant' *βana-
'egg' *βatsi
'to whisper' *βaʂɨʂɨ-
'sweet' *βata
'fish species' *βato(m)
'parrot (species of family Psittacidae)' *βawa
'fish species (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans)' *βawi(n)
'to fetch, to search' *βɨ-
'comitative' *-βɨt, *-bɨta(n)
'boy, adolescent' *βɨʔra(C)
'to forget, to lose' *βɨʔ(n)oÇ
'tear' *βɨʔo(m)
'waves' *βɨʔʃo(n)
'forehead, face' *βɨmãnan
'husband, male' *βɨnɨ
'man, male' *βɨ̃βo
'tree species (of family Phyllanthaceae)' *βɨp(on)
'eye' *βɨɽo
'to cut' *βɨstɨ-
'eyebrows' *βɨʂko
'eyebrows' *βɨʂpi
'frog species' *βɨʂko
'thin, flat' *βɨʂ(n)a(n)
'soup, broth' *βɨtɨm
'face (body part prefix)' *βɨ-
'to catch' *βiÇ-
'skin, leather, hide' *βitsi
'heron species' *βitʃo
'mosquito species' *βi
'fruit' *βimi
'wasp' *βira
'moriche palm (Mauritia vinifera)' *βinon
'guava' *βĩpiʃ
'pluralizer' *-βo
'woodpecker species (of family Picidae)' *βoir
'kind of box' *βoʔ(n)a(n)-ti
'palm species' *βoʔɽɨ(t)
'stump, trunk' *βoʔɽo(Ç)
'fish species (of family Pimelodidae)' *βoɨ
'resin' *βoi(Ç)
'tree species (Cecropia?)' *βoko(n)
'a small tree whose bark is used to make ropes' *βoko
'bee species' *βo(n)a
'hair, coat' *βo
'kind of beetle' *βõpa
'otter species' *βõsi(m)
'head' *βoʂka(Ç)
'to sit (down)' *tsaʔo(t)-
'fish species' *tsatsa
'hiccup, to hiccup' *tsɨko-
'cicada' *tsiʔo
'charcoal, ember' *tsitsɨ
'ember, firewood charcoal' *(ts)is(t)o
'who' *tso(a)
'to catch, to grab with the hand' *tsoma-
'to sting, to pierce, to inject' *tʃaʔtʃi-
'to crush, to beat, to hit' *tʂaka-
'to lie' *tʃa(n)i-
'clam species' *tʃãpiʃ
'cricket, locust' *tʂãpo
'kingfisher' *tʃaɽaʂ
'deer species' *tʂaʂo
'fire' *tʃiʔi
'ashes (lit. fire dust)' *tʃiʔi mapo
'to steer (a canoe) from behind' *tʃiβi-
'rear part' *tʃipo
'to wash, to wash oneself' *tʃoka-
'cloth, clothes' *tʃopa
'hard, strong' *tʃoɽiʃ
'hard, strong' *kɨɽɨʂ
'liquid, water' *hɨ(n)ɨ
'fish species' *hɨ(n)ɨ ʔino
'to leave, to let go of' *hɨ(n)ɨÇ
'palm species' *hɨpɨ
'to shine, to burn' *hɨɽɨ-
'to put out (fire)' *(n)oka-
'seed' *hɨʂɨ
'to enter' *hiʔki-
'ant species' *hiʔima
'ant species' *hi(ts)i
'blood' *himi
'tail' *hina
'to see, to look' *his-
'kind of ant' *hitsis
'to urinate, urine' *hisor-
'kind of tree as well as its fruit' *hiʃtʃiβi
'tree (generic), log (generic)' *hiwi-
'to hear, to listen, to understand' *kʷak-
'edge, lips' *kʷɨβi
'Penelope (bird species)' *kʷɨβo
'to want, to desire' *kʷɨ̃ɨ̃-
'to want' *katsi, *-kas
'to love, to like, to want' *(n)oi-
'to call' *kʷɨ(n)a-
'kind of bench' *kʷɨ(n)a(n)
'to draw, to paint' *kʷɨ(n)ɨ-
'beard' *kʷɨ(n)i
'end, extreme' *kʷɨ(n)o-
'to skewer' *kʷɨo(n)-
'lips' *kʷɨʂa(n)
'beard' *kʷɨʂ(n)i
'macaw species' *kaʔi(n)
'back' *kaʔtɨ
'relative' *ka(n)i
'kind of basket' *kaka(n)
'pineapple' *ka(n)
'jaguar' *kamar
'snake species' *kaʔmoʂ
'macaw species' *kara
'flash of lightning' *karak
'bow' *kano-
'kind of squirrel' *kapa
'cayman' *kapɨt
'cará (kind of yam)' *kaɽi
'firewood' *kaɽo
'mat' *kaʃi
'back (body part prefix)' *ka-
'to sew' *kɨʔʂɨ-
'vessel, dish, plate' *kɨ̃tʃa(C)
'piece, shard' *kɨʂɨ
'thick' *kɨʂto(C)
'kind of pan' *kɨ̃ti(C)
'to end, to finish' *kɨyo-
'locative ablative suffix, directional, towards' *-ki
'hole, opening' *kiri
'thigh' *kʷisi
'smoke' *kʷaʔin
'to boil' *koβi(n)-
'jaw' *kʷi
'mother's brother' *koka
'glowworm' *koki(ʃ)
'mother's brother' *koko
'to swallow soft food' *koko-
'glowworm' *koko(ʃs)i-
'tinamou (bird species)' *koma
'fungus species' *ko(n)o
'pus' *ko
'value' *kopi
'ashes, greyish' *koɽo
'cedar' *(k)oʂna
'causative verbal suffix' *-m(a)-
'hill' *maʔtʃi
'fish species' *maʔi(r)
'cold' *matsi
'to sweep' *matso-
'animal horn' *mãtʃa(n)
'earth, land' *mai
'on earth, on the ground' *mai(n)
'to bury' *mai(n)-, *maiwa-
'headband, hat' *maiti
'rat' *maka
'rat' *ʂoya
'stone, rock' *maka
'piranha (fish species)' *makɨ
'to wish' *mara-
'over, about' *ma(n)a(n)
'metal' *ma(n)ɨ
'banana' *ma(n)i
'to long' *(ma)(n)o(t)-
'to climb (a hill)' *mapɨ-
'shrimp' *mapi
'head' *mapo
'clay, dust' *mapok
'plant species' *maɽaʂ
'agouti (rodent species)' *maɽi
'calabash species' *masɨ(n)
'sand' *masi
'stone' *maʂaʂ
'urucum (the tree and its fruit)' *maʂɨ
'on top, peak' *maʂka(t)
'to cut hair' *maʂkoɽ-
'animal horn' *mãʂo
'to hit the head' *matas
'to die' *mawa-
'ant species' *mawis
'to twist, to spin, to move in circles' *maya-
'to touch, to touch with the hand, to feel' *mɨʔ(ɨ)-
'to wet, wet' *mɨʔtʃa-
'hand, arm' *mɨβi
'fingernail' *mɨ̃tsis
'claw, nail' *hõtsis
'hand' *mɨkɨr
'right hand' *mɨkɨrɨ kʷaya
'to find, to look for' *mɨɽa-
'to crawl' *mɨʂo
'finger' *mɨtoti
'slough, muddy area' *mɨwɨ
'2SG' *mi
'2PL' *mato
'pamonha (traditional corn pastry)' *mɨsi
'hook, fishhook' *miʃkiti
'poison, bitter' *moka
'thorn' *moʂa
'nest' *naʔa
'sloth species' *naʔir
'sky' *naiɽ
'mosquito species' *(n)akʷa
'termite' *nakʷaʂɨ
'to dream' *(n)ama-
'below, under, underneath' *nama
'meat' *rami
'genipap (kind of fruit)' *(n)a(n)ɨ
'to put inside, to submerge' *nan(ɨ)-
'inside, in the middle' *(n)apo
'to bathe, to take a bath' *(n)as(i)-
'wide, broad' *(n)aʂβa
'to bite' *(n)atɨʂ-
'foreigner' *(n)awa
'rainbow' *(n)awa βaʔi
'cut vegetation, abandoned land' *(n)awɨ
'trumpeter bird' *(n)ɨa
'to unite, to put together' *(n)ɨʔa-
'to tie' *(n)ɨʂa-
'bird species' *(n)ɨʂ(n)ɨʂ
'day' *rɨtɨ
'to stand' *niÇ
'forest, woods' *(n)iʔi
'breeze' *(n)iβiÇ
'centipede, scorpion' *(n)iβo
'to listen, to hear' *(n)ĩka
'to drag, to pull' *(n)i(n)-
'to sweat' *(n)iska(n)-
'palm species' *(n)isi
'to be bored' *(n)iʃ-
'wind' *(n)iwɨ
'1PL' *no(-)
'deep' *(n)oa-
'smail species' *(n)oʔtʃo
'worm' *noʔir
'snail species' *(n)oβo
'tasty, delicious' *(n)o(ɨ)
'to swim' *(n)on(a)-
'to swim' *nono-
'duck' *rorom
'canoe' *(n)õti
'to fly' *(n)o(ya)-
'to come, to arrive' *ho-
'flower' *hoa
'language, voice, word' *hoi
'to breathe' *hoin
'heart' *hoi(n)ti
'to hide' *hon(ɨ)-
'man, human' *honi
'wild hog species' *ho(n)o
'red' *hoʃin
'white' *hoʂo
'to wash' *paʔtsa-
'to get drunk, drunk' *paʔɨn-
'deaf' *paβɨ
'ear' *paβĩki
'bamboo species (Guadua weberbaueri, taboca)' *paka
'to fall' *pakɨt-
'armadillo species' *paɨ(n)o
'ear adornment, earring' *pa(ʔ)o(t)
'father' *papa
'to deceive' *paɽa(n)-
'river' *paɽo
'ear (body part prefix)' *pa-
'yellow' *pãʃin
'new, fresh, raw' *paʂa
'blossoming small branch on a stem' *paʂko
'deaf' *pãtot
'to shake' *paya-
'rotten' *payo
'wing, feather' *pɨʔi
'to eat' *pi-
'nephew, son of one's sister' *piʔak
'arrow' *pia
'parakeet' *pitso
'hummingbird' *pi(n)o
'toucan species' *pisa
'cujubi(m) (Pipile cujubi, bird species), wild turkey' *koʂo
'large toucan species' *ʂokɨ
'snake species' *pisika
'small bag (?)' *piʃa
'mat' *piʃi(n)
'small' *pistia
'food' *piti
'faeces' *poʔi-
'kind of tubercle (yam?)' *poa
'sister or brother of the opposite sex' *poi
'intestine, belly' *poko
'vein' *pono
'owl species' *popo
'sloth species' *posɨ(n)
'ankle' *poʂko
'to thow, to abandon' *pota-
'dust' *poto
'arm' *poyam
'during, while' *ɽaʔma
'remedy, drug, traditional medicine' *ɽaʔo
'to be afraid, to get scared' *ɽaʔtɨ-
'two' *ɽaβɨt
'to be ashamed' *ɽaβi(n)-
'knee, kneecap' *ɽãβoʂo(ko)
'to fear, to be afraid of' *ɽakʷɨ-
'to lie down' *ɽaka-
'to cover, to surround' *ɽako-
'body hair, coat' *ɽani
'knee' *ɽa(n)toko-
'to kill' *ɽɨʔtɨ-
'end, headwater (?) ("ponta, cabeceira do rio")' *ɽɨβo
'forward, upwards (of river)' *ɽɨβo+ki
'hole in nose, nostril' *ɽɨ+kini
'to grind' *ɽɨnɨ-
'nasal septum' *ɽɨpaC
'to knock down, to fall over' *ɽɨɽ-
'musical instrument' *ɽɨwɨ
'equal, the same way, also' *-ɽiʔβi, *ɽiʔβa
'thread, string, cord' *ɽisiβitʃi
'thread' *ɽisis
'axe' *ɽoɨ
'tobacco' *ɽomɨ
'snake' *ɽoro
'to be on a diet, to fast' *sama-
'to lift, to suspend' *sa(n)á(n)-
'fish species' *sa(n)í(n)
'kind of small fish' *sani(n)
'to put on clothes, to dress' *sawɨÇ-
'fierce' *si(n)a
'coati species (Nasua nasua)' *sisi
'good, pretty' *ʃaɽa
'chest (body part prefix)' *ʃik
'plant species' *ʃiko(n)
'spider species' *ʃi(n)a
'to think' *sina(n)-
'pium (fly species)' *ʃio
'clarity' *ʂaʔβak
'tamandua (kind of anteater)' *ʂaʔɨ
'to cut' *ʂaʔtɨ-
'to yawn' *ʂaβa-
'tree bark, skin' *ʂakaÇ
'sister-in-law, wife, cross-cousin (?)' *ʂa(n)o
'bone' *ʂao
'cotton' *ʂapo
'pestle, stone' *ʂaʂo
'calabash species' *ʂata(n)
'macaw species' *ʂawar
'tortoise' *ʂawɨ
'sugar cane (?)' *ʂawi
'to drink' *ʂɨʔa-
'to thresh corn' *ʂɨʔmɨ-
'palm species' *ʂɨβo(n)
'gecko species' *ʂɨkɨÇ
'caterpillar species' *ʂɨ(n)a
'tree species' *ʂɨ(n)a(n)
'fat, grease, oil' *ʂɨ(n)i
'old' *ʂɨ(n)i
'tooth, beak (of bird)' *ʂɨta
'vulture' *ʂɨtɨ
'to smell' *ʂɨtɨ-
'smell, scent' *wia
'stinky, stench' *pisi
'ceiling, roof (made of straw), to thatch' *ʂɨwa-
'benefactive' *-ʂo(n)
'transitive concord suffix' *-ʂon
'to roast' *ʂoʔi-
'needle' *ʂoʔomoʂ
'to scratch, to itch, itch' *ʂoa-
'fat' *ʂoaC-
'house' *ʂoβo
'to peel' *ʂoka-
'small' *ʂoko
'to cast skin (?)' *ʂokoC-
'breasts, milk' *ʂoma
'green, unripe' *ʂoo
'papaya' *ʂopa(n)
'down feather' *ʂopoÇ
'chest' *ʂotsi
'girl, young girl' *ʂõtako
'foot' *taʔɨ
'temporary house, shelter (?)' *taʔpas
'liver' *takʷa
'peanut' *tama
'cheek' *tamβo
'to try, to taste (?)' *tara-
'palm species' *taoaÇ
'bridge, platform' *tapo
'root' *tapon
'old log, rotten log' *taɽa
'to spin (?)' *taɽá(n)-
'clothes' *taɽi
'kinf of basket' *tasa
'salt' *taʃi
'pile of logs floating down the river' *taʂa
'bamboo used for making arrows' *tawa
'to break' *tɨʔk(ɨ)-
'blowpipe' *tɨpi
'sprout, shoot' *tɨʂka(n)
'neck, nape, throat' *tɨʂo
'Adam's apple' *tɨto(n)
'hawk species' *tɨtɨC
'instrumental nominalizer' *-ti
'to hit, to beat' *tima-
'rifle, shotgun' *to...
'strainer' *toʔati
'to make pregnant, to give birth' *to(ʔo)-
'frog or toad species' *toa
'dark blue' *to(n)a(n)
'wart' *toʂpi
'to make' *-wa
'farm, garden' *wai
'water, river' *waka
'fish species' *wamɨ
'palm species' *wani(m)
'pumpkin species' *waɽa(m)
'to sweep, to forage' *was
'herb' *wasi
'spider's web' *was(n)o(n)
'cotton' *waʂmɨ(n)
'imperative verbal suffix' *-wɨ
'narrow strait between two islands' *wɨa
'other, another' *wɨts(a)
'one (numeral)' *wɨsti
'lower leg' *wiʔtaʂɨ
'to row' *wi(n)a-
'to cry, to weep' *wi(n)-
'club, baton' *wino
'to pass' *wi(n)o-
'calf' *wipoko
'black' *wiso
'with, in possession of' *-ya
'tick precies' *yaʔra(n)
'town, settlement' *yakat-
'negative suffix' *(-ya)ma
'axe' *yami
'fish' *yapa
'late; afternoon' *yãtan
'wild hog species' *yawa
'armadillo species' *yawis
'to say, to speak' *yoʔi-
'animal' *yoʔi(n)a
'to have fever, to get annoyed' *yo(n)a-
'wizard' *yoβɨ(ka)
'pepper species' *yotʃi
'to ask' *yoka-
'fish species' *yoma
'thread, line, cord' *yoma(n)
'to steal' *yomɨtso-
'people, human body' *yoɽa
'to grow' *yo(o)si
'spirit' *yosi(n)
'woman, old woman' *yoʂa


  • Amarante Ribeiro, Lincoln Almir, and Gláucia Viera Cândido. (2008). "A formação de palavras a partir de morfemas monossilábicos nominais e bases verbais em línguas indígenas da família Pano: Prefixação ou incorporação nominal?" Veredas On Line (UFJF) 1:129–45.
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  1. ^ a b Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  2. ^ a b Fleck, David. 2013. Panoan Languages and Linguistics. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 99.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kontanawa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  5. ^ Oliveira, Sanderson Castro Soares de (2014). Contribuições para a reconstrução do Protopáno. Doctoral dissertation. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília.
  6. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  7. ^ Oliveira, S. C. Soares de (2014). Contribuições para a Reconstrução do Protopáno. PhD dissertation, Universidade de Brasília. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.

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