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Party of Democratic Action

Party of Democratic Action

Stranka demokratske akcije
PresidentBakir Izetbegović[1]
General SecretaryHalid Genjac
FounderAlija Izetbegović
Founded26 May 1990
HeadquartersMehmeda Spahe 14, Sarajevo
Youth wingYouth Association SDA
Ideology
Political positionCentre-right[22] to right-wing[23]
European affiliationEuropean People's Party (observer)[24]
International affiliationInternational Democrat Union
ColoursGreen
Slogan"Snaga naroda!"
"Power of the nation!"
Anthem"Ja sin sam tvoj, zemljo"
"I am your son, country"
House of Representatives of BiH
9 / 42
House of Peoples of BiH
3 / 15
House of Representatives of the FBiH
29 / 98
House of Peoples of the FBiH
8 / 58
Assembly of RS
2 / 83
Party flag
Flag of the Party of Democratic Action
Website
www.sda.ba

The Party of Democratic Action (Bosnian: Stranka demokratske akcije; abbr. SDA) is a Bosniak nationalist, conservative[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[25]

History

The Party of Democratic Action (SDA) was founded on 26 May 1990 in Sarajevo, as a "party of Muslim cultural-historic circle". It was a realisation of Alija Izetbegović's idea of an Islamic religious and national party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many members of the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including imams, took part in the party's foundation. Alija, who was chosen as its chairman, tried to resolve disputes between the Muslim nationalist Islamists led by Omer Behmen and the left-wing Muslims led by Adil Zulfikarpašić.[12] The party has its roots in the old Yugoslav Muslim Organization, a conservative Muslim party in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Yugoslav Muslim Organization was a successor of Muslimanska Narodna Organizacija (Muslim National Organization), a conservative Muslim party founded in 1906 during the Austro-Hungarian era. The Muslim National Organization was itself a successor of the conservative Muslim "Movement for waqf and educational autonomy" (Pokret za vakufsko-mearifsku autonomiju) that goes back to 1887.

The SDA achieved considerable success in elections after the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. It founded the newspaper Ljiljan. The party remains the strongest political party among the Bosniak population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In November 2000 the party was defeated by the Social Democratic Party and other parties gathered into the "Alliance for Change", and found itself in opposition for the first time since its creation.[26][clarification needed]

The party has branches in Slovenia, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Croatia and the Sandžak region of Serbia. One of the goals of the party, outside Bosnia and Herzegovina, is to represent and defend the interests of Bosniaks and other Muslim South Slavs in the entire Balkan region. In Montenegro the party merged with smaller Bosniak and Slavic Muslim parties to create the Bosniak Party.

The party is an observer member of the European People's Party (EPP).

After the 2018 elections, SDA became once again the largest party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ideology

The Party of Democratic Action is the primary stronghold for right-orientated Bosniaks, especially for nationalists, and conservatives, and thus they have been described as national-conservative.[27] Besides that, the party has been also described as Islamist and Pan-Islamist,[28][29] and its leadership has been described by some, to have close ties with the Muslim Brotherhood,[30] and with current Islamic regimes such as Turkey and Iran.[31][32][33] Some have even described them as secularist.[34][35] They support the centralization of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[36] On foreign stances they also tend to be atlanticist and supportive of the accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union.[29][20]

List of presidents

# Name
(Born-Died)
Portrait Term of Office
1 Alija Izetbegović
(1925–2003)
Izetbegovic.jpg 26 May 1990 13 October 2001
2 Sulejman Tihić
(1951–2014)
Sulejman Tihić.jpg 13 October 2001 25 September 2014
3 Bakir Izetbegović
(b. 1956)
Izetbegović, Bakir.jpg 25 September 2014 present

Elections

Parliamentary elections

Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Year # Popular vote Seats won Government
1990 1st 711,075
86 / 240
government
Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Year # Popular vote HoR Seat change HoP Seat change Government
1996 1st 909,970
19 / 42
Steady
5 / 15
Steady government
1998 1st 583,895
13 / 42
Decrease 6
3 / 15
Decrease 2 government
2000 1st 279,548
8 / 42
Decrease 5
2 / 15
Decrease 1 opposition
2002 1st 269,427
10 / 42
Increase 2
4 / 15
Increase 2 government
2006 2nd 238,475
9 / 42
Decrease 1
3 / 15
Decrease 1 government
2010 3rd 214,300
7 / 42
Decrease 2
3 / 15
Steady government (until 2012)
opposition (from 2012)
2014 1st 305,715
10 / 42
Increase 3
3 / 15
Steady government
2018 1st 281,754
9 / 42
Decrease 1
3 / 15
Steady government

Presidency elections

Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Election year # Candidate Votes % Representing Elected?
1996 1st Alija Izetbegović 730,592 80.0% Bosniaks Yes
1998 1st Alija Izetbegović 511,541 86.8% Bosniaks Yes
2002 1st Sulejman Tihić 192,661 37.2% Bosniaks Yes
2006 2nd Sulejman Tihić 153,683 27.5% Bosniaks No
2010 1st Bakir Izetbegović 162,831 34.8% Bosniaks Yes
2014 1st Bakir Izetbegović 247,235 32.8% Bosniaks Yes
2018 1st Šefik Džaferović 212,581 36.6% Bosniaks Yes

Cantonal election results

Notes

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Bakir Izetbegović is the new president of the Party of Democratic Action". klix.ba. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  2. ^ Šedo 2013, p. 31.
  3. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram (2018). "Bosnia-Herzegovina". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  4. ^ a b Eralp 2012, p. 28.
  5. ^ a b Babić 2014, p. 128.
  6. ^ a b Farmer 2010, p. 126.
  7. ^ a b Krieger 2012, p. 102.
  8. ^ a b Tottoli 2014, p. 81.
  9. ^ a b Filipović & 28 July 2000.
  10. ^ [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]
  11. ^ "Stav SDA o novoj metodologiji proširenja Evropske unije". ba.n1info.com (in Bosnian). N1. 7 February 2020.
  12. ^ a b Perica 2004, p. 87.
  13. ^ Babić 2014, p. 128.
  14. ^ Farmer 2010, p. 126.
  15. ^ Krieger 2012, p. 102.
  16. ^ Tottoli 2014, p. 81.
  17. ^ Filipović 28 July 2000
  18. ^ [12][13][14][15][16][17]
  19. ^ Gallagher, Tom. "The Balkans After the Cold War: From Tyranny to Tragedy". Routledge.
  20. ^ a b "Party Politics in the Western Balkans" edited by Vera Stojarová, Peter Emerson
  21. ^ Dyker, David; Vejvoda, Ivan. "Yugoslavia and After: A Study in Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth".
  22. ^ Nardelli, Alberto; Dzidic, Denis; Jukic, Elvira (8 October 2014). "Bosnia and Herzegovina: the world's most complicated system of government?". The Guardian.
  23. ^ Arnautović, Suad (2018). "The Presidentialisation of Political Parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Mitigated Presidentialism". In Passarelli, Gianluca (ed.). The Presidentialisation of Political Parties in the Western Balkans. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 87. ISBN 978-3-319-97352-4.
  24. ^ Šedo 2013, p. 92.
  25. ^ James, Ron (2003). Frontiers and ghettos: State Violence in Serbia and Israel. University of California Press. p. 218. ISBN 9780520236578. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
  26. ^ Al-Azmeh, Aziz (2007). Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity, and Influence. Cambridge University Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780521860116. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
  27. ^ "A State of Division". Jacobin. 8 November 2018.
  28. ^ Xavier Bougarel, "Islam and Nationhood in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Surviving Empires", Bloomsbury
  29. ^ a b Xavier Bougarel. "Bosnian Islam since 1990: Cultural Identity or Political Ideology?", Convention annuelle de l’Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN), p. 3
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ https://www.balcanicaucaso.org/eng/Areas/Bosnia-Herzegovina/Enver-Kazaz-Turkophilia-in-the-Bosniak-mentality-173610
  32. ^ https://biepag.eu/erdogan-in-sarajevo-its-my-party-and-ill-campaign-in-europe-if-i-want-to/
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ "Innocence and Victimhood: Gender, Nation, and Women’s Activism in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina", Elizabeth Helms, University of Wisconsin Press
  35. ^ "Islam and Bosnia: Conflict Resolution and Foreign Policy in Multi-ethnic States", edited by Maya Shatzmiller, McGill-Queen's University Press
  36. ^ https://china-cee.eu/2019/10/11/bosnia-herzegovina-political-briefing-bihs-troyka-agreement-ambitious-or-premature-plan-to-exit-from-10-months-long-government-crisis/
Books
  • Babić, Marko (2014). Milosevic, Marko; Rekawek, Kacper (eds.). Perseverance of Terrorism: Focus on Leaders. Amsterdam: IOS Press. ISBN 9781614993872.
  • Eralp, Doğa Ulaş (2012). Politics of the European Union in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Between Conflict and Democracy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739149478.
  • Farmer, Brian R. (2010). Radical Islam in the West: Ideology and Challenge. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 9780786462100.
  • Krieger, Joel (2012). The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199738595.
  • Perica, Vjekoslav (2004). Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195174298.
  • Šedo, Jakub (2013). "The party system of Bosnia and Herzegovina". In Stojarová, Vera; Emerson, Peter (eds.). Party Politics in the Western Balkans. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781135235857.
  • Tottili, Roberto (2014). Routledge Handbook of Islam in the West. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781317744023.
Other sources

External links


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