Patricia Scotland

The Baroness Scotland of Asthal

Patricia Scotland 2018.jpg
Scotland in 2018
6th Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations
Assumed office
1 April 2016
MonarchElizabeth II
See list
Preceded byKamalesh Sharma
Shadow Attorney General for England and Wales
In office
11 May 2010 – 7 October 2011
LeaderHarriet Harman (Acting)
Ed Miliband
Preceded byEdward Garnier
Succeeded byEmily Thornberry
Attorney General for England and Wales
In office
28 June 2007 – 11 May 2010
Prime MinisterGordon Brown
Preceded byThe Lord Goldsmith
Succeeded byDominic Grieve
Advocate General for Northern Ireland
In office
12 April 2010 – 11 May 2010
Prime MinisterGordon Brown
Preceded byOffice created
Succeeded byDominic Grieve
Attorney General for Northern Ireland
In office
28 June 2007 – 12 April 2010
Prime MinisterGordon Brown
Preceded byThe Lord Goldsmith
Succeeded byJohn Larkin
Minister of State for Criminal Justice and Offender Management[1]
In office
12 June 2003 – 28 June 2007
Prime MinisterTony Blair
Preceded byThe Lord Falconer of Thoroton
Succeeded byThe Baroness Browning
Parliamentary Secretary for Lord Chancellor's Department
In office
12 June 2001 – 13 June 2003
Prime MinisterTony Blair
Preceded byThe Lord Bach
Succeeded byThe Lord Filkin
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
In office
28 July 1999 – 12 June 2001
Prime MinisterTony Blair
Preceded byThe Baroness Symons of Vernham Dean
Succeeded byBen Bradshaw
The Baroness Amos
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
Assumed office
6 November 1997
Life Peerage
Personal details
Born (1955-08-19) 19 August 1955 (age 65)
Dominica, British Leeward Islands
Political partyLabour
Alma materAnglia Ruskin University
University College London[citation needed]
Middle Temple

Patricia Janet Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal PC QC (born 19 August 1955), is the sixth Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations. She was elected at the 2015 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting and took office on 1 April 2016. She is the first woman to hold the post.[2] A barrister by profession, she was elevated to the House of Lords in 1997 and, as a British Labour Party politician, served in ministerial positions within the UK Government, most notably as the Attorney General for England and Wales and Advocate General for Northern Ireland. She is a dual citizen of the United Kingdom and Dominica, where she was born.[3]

Early life and career

Scotland was born in Dominica, the 10th child of 12 born to Roman Catholic parents,[4] a Dominican mother and Antiguan father.[5] Her family emigrated to Walthamstow in north-east London when she was two years old, where she attended Chapel End Secondary School and Walthamstow School for Girls. She then went on to Mid Essex Technical College in Chelmsford, where she obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree from University of London as an external student.[citation needed] She was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1977, specialising in family law, and was called to the Dominican bar in 1978.[6]

In 1991, Scotland became the first black woman to be appointed a Queen's Counsel. She later founded the (now closed) 1 Gray's Inn Square barristers chambers.[7] Early in 1997, she was elected as a Bencher of the Middle Temple. Scotland was named as a Millennium Commissioner on 17 February 1994, and was a member of the Commission for Racial Equality. She received a life peerage on a Labour Party list of working peers and was created Baroness Scotland of Asthal, of Asthal in the County of Oxfordshire on 30 October 1997.[8]


From 1999 to 2001, Scotland was the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, where she was responsible, among others, for the UK Government's diplomatic relations with North America, the Caribbean, Overseas Territories, Consular Division, British Council, administration and all Parliamentary business in the House of Lords. Scotland introduced the International Criminal Court Bill which sought to ratify the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court into UK law. She established the Pro Bono Lawyers Panel, a panel of British-based lawyers who provided legal advice on a pro bono basis to United Kingdom nationals imprisoned in foreign countries. She created an Overseas Territories Council for the Caribbean and reformed and restructured the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Consular Division to be able to respond more effectively to emergencies and disasters abroad such as the 11 September attacks.

In 2001 she became Parliamentary Secretary, Lord Chancellor's Department, and was made a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. She was the minister formally responsible for civil justice and the reform of civil law including the comprehensive reform of land registration leading to the Land Registration Act 2002. She was also formally responsible for international affairs at the Lord Chancellor's Department and was appointed by Prime Minister Tony Blair as the UK Alternate Representative to the European Convention[9] and was given primary responsibility for the negotiations in relation to the Charter of Rights which were successfully concluded in 2003. During this period she consolidated the strong relations created with all the applicant countries through the FAHR programme and the member states and was subsequently awarded the Polish Medal for her contribution to the reform and development of Law in Poland.

Scotland was an unsuccessful hopeful contender for a cabinet position in 2003, when Prime Minister Blair reportedly considered appointing her Leader of the House of Lords.[10]

Scotland in 2005

In 2003, Scotland was made Minister of State for the Criminal Justice System and Law Reform at the Home Office and deputy to the Home Secretary. She served in that post until 2007 under three Home Secretaries: David Blunkett, Charles Clarke and John Reid. While at the Home Office she was responsible for major reform of the criminal justice system. She created the Office of Criminal Justice Reform[11] which helped to create and support the National Criminal Justice Board and the Local Criminal Justice Board. Having acted as Chair, she then created three Alliances to reduce re-offending (Corporate, Civic and Faith based Alliance) and the Corporate Alliance against Domestic Violence.[12] She created an advisory group on victims and the Criminal Justice Centre, Victims and Witness units.

Scotland created Inside Justice Week[13] and the Justice Awards. She introduced the Crime and Victims Act, which created the new offence of familial homicide that was successfully used to prosecute the killers of Baby P who would otherwise have escaped responsibility for his death.[citation needed]

Scotland continued her responsibility for international affairs at the Home Office and continued to represent the UK in a number of international negotiations such as those relating to extradition.[citation needed]

NatWest Three

A new extradition treaty with the United States of America had been signed on 31 March 2003. Scotland had the responsibility for promoting the necessary legislation in the House of Lords.[14] The "NatWest Three" extradition case made use of this treaty. The three men were British citizens, living in the UK and working for a British bank. On 12 July 2006, in a highly unusual move, the Speaker of the House, Michael Martin, allowed an emergency debate on both the treaty and the NatWest Three after a request by Liberal Democrat frontbencher Nick Clegg.

During the debate, Scotland's view in 2005 that a higher threshold to establish "probable cause" was required by the UK to extradite from the US than vice versa was contrasted by Clegg to comments which the Prime Minister had made in July 2006, in which he stated that the evidential burdens on the two countries were the same.[15] The NatWest Three were subsequently extradited, and accepted a plea-bargain arrangement under which they pleaded guilty to a single count of wire fraud in the United States and were sentenced to 37 months' imprisonment.

Attorney General

Patricia Scotland speaking at the Royal Courts of Justice before LGBT History Month (2007)

On 28 June 2007, Scotland was appointed Attorney General by Prime Minister Gordon Brown.[7] She was the first woman to hold the office since its foundation in 1315.

During her time as Attorney General, Scotland continued to promote pro bono[16] work by lawyers and created an international and Schools Pro Bono Committee which was responsible for co-ordinating pro bono work. She created the Pro Bono Awards and Pro Bono Heroes. She also created the Attorney General's Youth Network.[17]

She was the last Attorney General for England and Wales also to be the Attorney General for Northern Ireland before the devolution of justice powers to the Northern Ireland Assembly, and appointment of a separate Attorney General for Northern Ireland. She became instead Advocate General for Northern Ireland, the UK government's chief advisor on Northern Ireland law, for a brief period until Labour left office.

Shadow Attorney General

When Labour left government on 11 May 2010, Scotland became the Shadow Attorney General and was reappointed to that role by Ed Miliband when he appointed his first Shadow Cabinet in October 2010.[18] She is currently[when?] a president of Chatham House.[19]

In November 2012, she was appointed Prime Ministerial Trade Envoy to South Africa.[20]

Local government

In December 2014, Scotland was elected as the Alderman for the ward of Bishopsgate in the City of London, having stood (in accordance with convention in the City) as an independent candidate.[21]

Commonwealth Secretary-General

Scotland in 2013

At the 2015 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Scotland was nominated for the position of Commonwealth Secretary-General by her native country of Dominica and defeated Antiguan diplomat Ronald Sanders, who was thought to have been the frontrunner for the position,[22] and former deputy secretary-general for political affairs Mmasekgoa Masire-Mwamba of Botswana to become the 6th Commonwealth Secretary-General and the first woman to hold the post. She began her first of a maximum of two possible four-year terms on 1 April 2016.[2][23]

Her candidacy was opposed by Hugh Segal, former Canadian special envoy to the Commonwealth and senator, who wrote in an editorial that she was not qualified for the position because she "accepted a well-paying brief from a junta in the Maldives to argue against the Commonwealth’s legitimacy when it and Canada sought the restoration of democracy in that country."[24][25]

Her bid to have her four-year term automatically renewed was rejected in June 2020, in contrast to the usual convention where an incumbent seeking a second term in office is elected unopposed for his or her second term. This followed a "significant and diverse number of colleagues from across the Commonwealth" raising objection to the proposal, due to allegations of cronyism following an audit of the Commonwealth Secretariat's procurement practices. Her term has been extended, however, due to the postponement of the 2020 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. [26][27]


Illegal immigrant employment penalty

In 2009 Scotland employed Lolo Tapui, an illegal immigrant. Tapui had been using a forged passport for the period up to and including December 2008. Scotland began to employ Tapui in January 2009. Tapui was later jailed for eight months for fraud, possessing a false identity stamp, and overstaying her UK visa. At her trial Tapui admitted to having been paid £95,000 by the Daily Mail. She was later deported to her native Tonga.[28]

Scotland, who was Attorney General at the time, had earlier been subjected to a penalty of £5,000 for not keeping, as an employer, copies of documents used to check Tapui's immigration status, under rules Scotland helped draft as a Home Office minister. The investigation by the UK Border Agency found that Scotland did not "knowingly" employ an illegal worker.[29]

Expenses controversy

In November 2016 political blogger Guido Fawkes published extracts from leaked documents exposing Scotland's extravagant spending on redecorating her grace and favour apartment in Mayfair, London. Costs included £4,020 for a cupboard, £5,000 for a new vanity unit, wallpaper at a cost of £10,500, £5,000 on refurbishing a safe, and a Trompe-l'œil style door for £4,000.[30]

Scotland denied the claims in a statement posted on the Commonwealth's website, insisting there had been "no extravagance at all" and explained that the spending was agreed by Kamalesh Sharma, the Commonwealth's secretary-general from 2008 to 2016.[31][32]

Contract controversy

In January 2020, Scotland faced further criticism of her role as secretary-general of the Commonwealth for awarding a consultancy contract to a company run by a friend. The Audit Committee of the international organisation noted that she offered a contract to a fellow Labour peer, Lord Patel of Bradford, despite his firm being "apparently insolvent" and "circumventing" the normal competitive tendering process.[33] Auditors also found that procurement rules had been waived by the secretariat on over 50 occasions.[34]

Charitable work

Scotland is the Patron of the Corporate Alliance Against Domestic Violence[35] and of Chineke! Foundation.[36] She is the joint Patron of Missio,[37] a charity which is the Catholic Church's official support organisation for overseas mission.[38] She is also a patron of Children and Families Across Borders (CFAB), a charity dedicated to reuniting children who have been separated from their families.[39]


Scotland has been voted Peer of the Year by Channel 4,[40] The House magazine,[41] Parliamentarian of the Year by the Spectator[42] and the Political Studies Association,[43] and received a number of other awards for her contribution to law reform in the UK and abroad.

Scotland was awarded an honorary degree from the University of East London in 2005.[44] Scotland has also been ranked the most influential Black Briton in the annual "Powerlist", having been ranked first in 2010, and in 2007 & 2008 when the list had separate male/female rankings.[45][46][47]

Scotland was decreed and invested by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, as a Dame of Merit with Star of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George in 2003. In 2014 she was appointed to the Council of the British and Irish Delegation of the Constantinian Order and promoted in rank to Dame Grand Cross of Merit.

On 1 January 2014 she was appointed chancellor of the University of Greenwich.[48]

In 2015, she was listed as one of BBC's 100 Women.[49]

Personal life

Scotland resides in London[50] and in Asthal, where she and her husband Richard Mawhinney, also a barrister, live with their two sons.[51][52]


Coat of arms of Patricia Scotland
Coronet of a British Baron.svg
Scotland of Asthal Lozenge.png
Azure on a Saltire Argent between four Fleur-de-lis heads outwards Or a Saltire Azure
On either side a Red-billed Tropic Bird proper
Gratia In Te Est


  1. ^ Crime Reduction from May 2007 to June 2007
  2. ^ a b "Commonwealth elects first woman secretary general". Times of Malta. 27 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  3. ^ "CHOGM: Patricia Scotland is first female Commonwealth secretary-general". The Australian. 28 November 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  4. ^ Madeleine Teahan, "Baroness calls for support for priests", Catholic Herald, 5 August 2011.
  5. ^ Aston, Joe (29 November 2015)"Alexander Downer narrowly avoids Commonwealth Secretary-General job", Financial Review.
  6. ^ "Baroness Scotland gets Dominica’s support for top Commonwealth post", Caribbean 360, 30 September 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Baroness Scotland QC appointed attorney general". The Lawyer. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  8. ^ "No. 54938". The London Gazette. 4 November 1997. p. 12377.
  9. ^ "Baroness Scotland of Asthal". Parliament.uk. 3 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  10. ^ David Hencke, "New Face of the Lords", The Guardian, 7 October 2003.
  11. ^ "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] Office for Criminal Justice Reform". Webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  12. ^ Blue Serif - Design & Marketing Services - matt@blueserif.co.uk. "Corporate Alliance Against Domestic Violence". CAADV. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  13. ^ "Inside Justice Week", Ministry of Justice, 17 October 2008. Archived 8 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Extradition Debate, Hansard, 12 July 2006.
  15. ^ UK-US Extradition Treaty, Hansard, 12 July 2006: Column 1396.
  16. ^ "Attorney General Welcomes Pro Bono Progress". Attorneygeneral.gov.uk. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  17. ^ "Attorney General's Youth Advisory Council meets for the first time". Attorneygeneral.gov.uk. 16 December 2009. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  18. ^ "Ed Miliband's new frontbench team | The Labour Party". .labour.org.uk. 10 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  19. ^ The Rt Hon Baroness Scotland QC - Chatham House Retrieved 29 September 2012
  20. ^ "New Trade Envoys and Business Investment to Boost Trade Links", UK Trade & Investment, 12 November 2012.
  21. ^ "Baroness Scotland elected as city Alderman". City A.M. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  22. ^ Leftly, Mark (27 November 2015). "Baroness Patricia Scotland becomes first UK citizen to be elected secretary‑general of Commonwealth". The Independent. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  23. ^ Bowcott, Owen (24 November 2015). "Lady Scotland vies to be next Commonwealth secretary general". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  24. ^ Segal, Hugh (26 November 2015). "The spirit of the Commonwealth needs to be revived - and quickly". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  25. ^ "Former Canadian senator backs Antigua Commonwealth nominee". Caribbean News Now. 27 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  26. ^ Bourke, Latika (25 June 2020). "Controversial Commonwealth boss has term extended as CHOGM is delayed indefinitely". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  27. ^ "Commonwealth leaders reject automatic second term for Baroness Scotland". BBC News. 10 June 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Lady Scotland's former cleaner convicted of fraud". The Guardian. Press Association. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  29. ^ "Brown stands by Lady Scotland as immigration row continues". The Guardian. Press Association. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  30. ^ "£1,200 to move Baroness Scotland's Chandelier". Guido Fawkes. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  31. ^ "Secretary-General states case for transformative change at Commonwealth". The Commonwealth. 5 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  32. ^ "Baroness Scotland hits back at accusations she oversaw extravagant refurbishment of official residence". The Daily Telegraph. 4 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  33. ^ "Baroness Scotland criticised for awarding contract to friend's firm". BBC News. 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  34. ^ Landale, James (10 June 2020). "Commonwealth rejects Baroness Scotland automatic second term". BBC News. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  35. ^ Blue Serif - Design & Marketing Services - matt@blueserif.co.uk. "Baroness Scotland - (CAADV) Corporate Alliance Against Domestic Violence". CAADV. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  36. ^ Dhiren Katwa (18 September 2017). "Brum welcomes BAME orchestra, Chineke!". Asian Voice. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  37. ^ "Catholic Mission Charity". MISSIO. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  38. ^ "Mission". Missio.org.uk. 18 June 1996. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  39. ^ "Our Trustees". Children and Families Across Borders.
  40. ^ Tran, Mark (28 June 2007). "Profile: Lady Scotland". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009.
  41. ^ "Domnitjen Magazine profiles: Baroness Patricia Scotland". Domnitjen.com. 19 August 1955. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  42. ^ "Top politician award for Cameron". BBC News. 10 November 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2006.
  43. ^ "AWARDS". PSA. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  44. ^ "UEL Alumni Newsletter". Archived from the original on 18 February 2011.
  45. ^ Eboda, Michael (26 August 2007). "The real black power list of 100 leading role models". The Observer. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  46. ^ "POWERLIST 2010: BRITAIN'S 100 MOST INFLUENTIAL BLACK PEOPLE". MAD NEWS UK. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  47. ^ Taylor, Jerome (28 September 2009). "Black power list published". The Independent. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  48. ^ "Baroness Scotland to be Chancellor of the University of Greenwich".
  49. ^ "BBC 100 Women 2015: Who is on the list?". BBC News. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  50. ^ "Baroness Scotland faces new inquiry call over £170,000 London allowance". Telegraph. 20 September 2009. Archived from the original on 24 September 2009.
  51. ^ Tran, Mark (28 June 2007). "Profile: Lady Scotland". Guardian. London.
  52. ^ "Scotland of Asthal, Baroness, (Patricia Janet Scotland) (born 19 Aug. 1955)". WHO'S WHO & WHO WAS WHO. 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u34101. Retrieved 9 September 2020.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Peter Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith
Attorney General for England and Wales
Succeeded by
Dominic Grieve
Attorney General for Northern Ireland
Succeeded by
John Larkin
New office Advocate General for Northern Ireland
Succeeded by
Dominic Grieve
Preceded by
Edward Garnier
Shadow Attorney General
Succeeded by
Emily Thornberry
Academic offices
Preceded by
Garry Hart, Baron Hart of Chilton
Chancellor of the University of Greenwich
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Kamalesh Sharma
Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations

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