Phoenix club (sports)

The term phoenix club is used in professional team sports to refer to a new entity that is set up to replace that of a club that has failed in business terms but not in sporting terms, and generally involves the continuation of the sporting activity.[1][2] In some cases, the phoenix club is created by the supporters of the club which has ended, or seems to be on the point of ending. A phoenix club will often have the same or similar name, logo and playing uniform to the original club. The term is particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom in relation to association football, although it is also used in other countries.

The term has also been used to refer to a club formed by disgruntled supporters of a major team when a change of ownership or policy causes them to lose faith in the management of their favoured side. That happened in 2005, when F.C. United of Manchester was formed by fans of Manchester United, as a protest at the sale of the latter to Malcolm Glazer,[3] although the new club's status as a phoenix is open to dispute if the original club still exists.

The term is derived from the mythical phoenix, a bird which was said to resurrect itself from its own ashes. In the Australia-New Zealand A-League the demise of the sole New Zealand team, New Zealand Knights, resulted in the newly-created club actually calling itself the Phoenix, albeit that the club moved to a different city, Wellington.

In some cases, phoenix clubs will retain the name of the club which they replaced, implying a continuation from the former team. In other cases, name changes occur, perhaps due to proprietorial ownership of the old club's name. An American football example is the Cleveland Browns, the original franchise of which moved to Baltimore in 1995 to become the Baltimore Ravens. However, the NFL stipulated that, as part of the move, the franchise would not be able to keep the history and records of the Browns, a cornerstone NFL franchise. In 1999, the "new" Browns were granted an expansion franchise and were awarded all of the former team's history by the league, even though the extant Ravens had the original Browns players and personnel.

The term does not include teams that have relocated as a going concern, and/or have been renamed. Many of the former may list their founding date as the day they moved, but they are considered to be the same club and therefore cannot be seen as a phoenix, unless their previous entity has officially folded.

However, because there is no single, universally-accepted definition, ascribing the term phoenix club can be disputed depending on the criteria used. Furthermore, there may be changes in what each country's football governing body and legal system defines as a phoenix club rather than resurrected club.

Association football


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established
1. FC Vöcklabruck Vöcklabrucker SC[4] 2009
Hakoah Vienna SC Maccabi Wien[5] 2010


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established
K.S.K. Beveren Waasland-Beveren[6] 2010
Beerschot AC FCO Beerschot Wilrijk[7][8] 2013
R.E. Mouscron Royal Mouscron-Péruwelz[9] 2010


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established
AA Cabofriense AD Cabofriense[10] 1997
Colorado and Pinheiros Paraná Clube[11] 1989
Grêmio Novorizontino (1973) Grêmio Novorizontino (2001)[12] 2001
Icasa E.C. A.D.R.C. Icasa[13] 2002


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
F.C. Etar FC Etar 1924 Veliko Tarnovo[14] 2003 OFC Etar Veliko Tarnovo[15] 2013


Original club Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix Club Year established 3rd Phoenix Club Year established
Vancouver Whitecaps Vancouver Whitecaps (1974–1984) 1974 Vancouver Whitecaps (1986–2010) 1986 Vancouver Whitecaps FC[16] 2009

Czech Republic

Original club Phoenix club Year established
DFC Prag DFC Prag 2016

Costa Rica

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Asociación Deportiva Limonense Limón F.C.[17] 2009
A.D. Generaleñaa AS Puma Generaleña[18] 2010

a A.D. Generaleña merged with A.D. Pérez Zeledón to become Municipal Pérez Zeledón, de facto only continuing the Pérez Zeledón heritage.


Original club Phoenix club Year established
NK Varaždin NK Varteks[19] 2011

England / Wales

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Merthyr Town F.C. Merthyr Tydfil F.C.[20] 1945
Willand Wanderers F.C. Willand Rovers F.C.[21] 1946
Accrington Stanley F.C. (1891) Accrington Stanley F.C.[22] 1968
Gateshead A.F.C. Gateshead F.C.[23] 1977
Newport County Newport County A.F.C.[24] 1989
Aldershot F.C. Aldershot Town F.C.[25] 1992
Wimbledon F.C.a AFC Wimbledon[26][27][28]
Hornchurch F.C. A.F.C. Hornchurch[29] 2005
Scarborough F.C. Scarborough Athletic F.C.[30] 2007
Farnborough Town F.C. Farnborough F.C.[31] 2007
Halifax Town A.F.C.[32] F.C. Halifax Town[33] 2008
Fisher Athletic F.C. Fisher F.C.[34] 2009
Chester City F.C. Chester F.C.[35] 2010
Merthyr Tydfil F.C. Merthyr Town F.C.[20] 2010
Rushden & Diamonds F.C. AFC Rushden & Diamonds[36] 2011
Windsor & Eton F.C. Windsor F.C.[37] 2011
Croydon Athletic F.C. AFC Croydon Athletic[38] 2012
Darlington F.C. Darlington 1883[39] 2012
Hereford United F.C. Hereford F.C.[40] 2015
North Ferriby United A.F.C.[41] North Ferriby F.C.[42] 2019

a Wimbledon F.C. became Milton Keynes Dons F.C. in 2004, two years after the foundation of AFC Wimbledon; see Relocation of Wimbledon F.C. to Milton Keynes.


Original club Phoenix club Year established
Tampere United TamU-K[43] 2009


Original club Phoenix club Year established
Gap FC Gap Foot 05[44] 2012


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
SC Tasmania 1900 Berlin SV Tasmania Berlin 1973
BSG Chemie Leipzig (1950) FC Sachsen Leipzig 1990 BSG Chemie Leipzig (1997)[45] 1997
SpVgg Blau-Weiß 1890 Berlin SV Blau Weiss Berlin[46][47] 1992
Lokomotive Leipzig (1966) Lokomotive Leipzig (2003) 2003
DVV Coburg FC Coburg[48] 2011
FC Sachsen Leipzig SG Sachsen Leipzig 2011 LVF Sachsen Leipzig 2014


Original club Phoenix club Year established
Putra Samarinda Pusamania Borneo F.C.[49] 2014


In the early 21st century, several Italian clubs endured severe economic problems. Some, most notably Fiorentina,[50][51] Napoli,[52][53][54] Parma[55][56] and Torino[57] were each declared bankrupt and had to reapply to play at a lower level with new owner and new corporate entity. All are considered to be the same clubs before and after the bankruptcy rather than separate phoenix entities; They obtained the "sports title" to remain in the Italy football pyramid using clauses in the Article 52 of N.O.I.F..[54][57]


Original club Phoenix club Year established
FK Liepājas Metalurgs FK Liepāja[58] 2014


Original club Phoenix club Year established
FK Žalgiris VMFD Žalgirisa[59] 2009
FBK Kaunas F.B.K. Kaunas[60] 2012
FK Vėtra FK Vėtra Rūdiškės[61] 2014
FK Dainava Alytus DFK Dainava[62] 2016

aFollowing a court settlement in 2014, club acquired rights to the history, titles, name and other assets of the original club.[63]

North Macedonia

Original club Phoenix club Year established
FK Sloga Jugomagnat FK Shkupi[64] 2012
FK Bashkimi (1947–2008) FK Bashkimi (2011)[65] 2011
FK Pobeda FK Pobeda (2010)[66] 2010

Northern Ireland

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Ballymena F.C. Ballymena United F.C.[67] 1934
Newry City F.C. Newry City AFC[68] 2013


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year established
Juan Aurich (1922–1992)[citation needed] Aurich–Cañaña 1993 Juan Aurich (1996–2004)[citation needed] 1996 Juan Aurich (2005)[69] 2005

Republic of Ireland

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
Cork City Cork United[70] 1940 Cork Athletic[70] 1948


Original club Phoenix Club Year established
FC Argeș Pitești F.C. Argeș 1953[71] 2013


Original club Phoenix club Year established
FC Spartak Ryazan FC Ryazan[72] 1995


Original club Phoenix club Year established
Clydebank F.C. (1965–2002)b Clydebank F.C. (2003– ) 2002
Gretna F.C. Gretna F.C. 2008[73] 2008

b Airdrieonians F.C. (1878) were liquidated in 2002[74] but their owners bought Clydebank[75] and rebranded it as Airdrie United (now known as Airdrieonians F.C. (2002)); therefore that club is not a phoenix as it took the place of an existing entity. However the current incarnation of Clydebank is a phoenix, as it was founded by supporters to replace the entity which had moved to Airdrie[76] and had to restart at the bottom of the (Junior) league pyramid.

c During the liquidation of The Rangers Football Club plc in 2012,[77] a new company, set up for the purpose,[78] bought the assets of the business and secured the transfer of its SFA membership, which allowed Rangers F.C. to continue playing, albeit having to start again in the lowest national division of the Scottish football league system.[79] It is regarded as a continuation of the same club by the relevant authorities.[80][81][82][83]


Original club Phoenix club Year established
ŽAK Subotica FK Spartak Subotica[84] 1945
FK Hajduk Kula OFK Hajduk[85][86][87] 2013[88]


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established
I. SSK Maribor NK Branik Maribor[89] 1949
NK Izola MNK Izola[90] 1996
NK Ljubljana FC Ljubljana[91] 2005
NK Olimpija Ljubljana (defunct) NK Olimpija Ljubljana (2005)[92][93] 2005
NK Primorje DNŠ Ajdovščina[94] 2011


Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
CP Mérida Mérida UD[95] 2000 Mérida AD[96] 2013
CF Ciudad de Murcia CAP Ciudad de Murcia[97] 2010
UD Salamanca Unionistas de Salamanca CF[98] 2013
CD Ourense UD Ourense[99] 2014

United States

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year established
Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1977–83) Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1988–94) 1988[100] Fort Lauderdale Strikers 2006
San Jose Earthquakes (1974–88)[101] San Jose Clash/Earthquakes 1994 San Jose Earthquakes 2008[102]
Seattle Sounders (1974–83)[103] Seattle Sounders (1994–2008) 1994 Seattle Sounders FC 2007
Austin Aztex FC Austin Aztex 2011[104]
Bethlehem Steel F.C. (1907–30) Bethlehem Steel FC 2015[105]
New York Cosmos (1970–85) New York Cosmos (2010) 2010[106]
Tampa Bay Rowdies (1975–93) Tampa Bay Rowdies 2010[107]
Portland Timbers (1975–1982) Portland Timbers (1985–1990) 1985 Portland Timbers (2001–2010) 2001 Portland Timbers 2009


United States

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
Los Angeles Angels (PCL) Los Angeles Angels 1961[108]
New York Metropolitans New York Mets 1961[109]
Washington Senators (1891–99) Washington Senators (1901–60) 1901 Washington Senators (1961–71) 1961



Original club Phoenix club Year established
Prokom Trefl Sopot Trefl Sopot[110] 2009

United Kingdom

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Thames Valley Tigers Guildford Heat[111] 2005
Manchester Giants (1975–2001) Manchester Giants[112] 2011

Ice hockey


Original club Phoenix club Year established
Manchester Storm (1995–2002) Manchester Phoenix[113] 2003


Original club Phoenix club Year established
Hammarby Hockey (1921–2008) Hammarby Hockey[114][115] 2008


  1. ^ "Phoenix from the flames: How do you resurrect a football club?". 10 July 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  2. ^ "Administration: How a 'phoenix' club can play in Scottish football". Stv.tv. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  3. ^ "Phoenix football – the clubs that would not die". Supportersnotcustomers.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Vöcklabruck: Anpfiff für neuen Fußball-Club". im-salzkammergut.at. Retrieved 14 April 2018.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ Barkat, Amiram (25 December 2006). "Vienna Jews get back pre-WWII sporting club". Haaretz. Retrieved 25 December 2006.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-10-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Where is the money going from Victor Wanyama's sale to Southampton?". stv.tv. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  8. ^ "Beerschot Wilrijk – Katelijne 22.03.2014". ultras-tifo.net. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  9. ^ Pasztor, David (8 May 2015). "New Chelsea partnerships in Belgium and Portugal?". sbnation.com. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Cabofriense bate Bonsucesso e sobe para elite do Campeonato Carioca". terra.com.br. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  11. ^ "Justiça pode levar Paraná definitivamente à Vila Olímpica; entenda – – Abrindo o Jogo". terra.com.br. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  12. ^ http://www.arquivodeclubes.com/sp/novo[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-02-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "История". weebly.com. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Етър Велико Търново започва на чисто във В група – Gong.bg". gong.bg. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  16. ^ "Watch Vancouver Whitecaps FC online | YouTube TV (Free Trial)". YouTube TV. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
  17. ^ PrensaLibre News Archived 2013-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ AS. Puma Generaleña Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine – UNAFUT (in Spanish)
  19. ^ Strahija, Ivana (29 May 2011). "Pokrenuto osnivanje NK Varteksa". Sportnet.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  20. ^ a b WalesOnline (15 July 2010). "Revamped Merthyr ready for next chapter". walesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  21. ^ "Willand Rovers – The History". www.willandrovers.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-11-29. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
  22. ^ Louise Taylor (27 October 2009). "Accrington Stanley desperate not to let history repeat itself". The Sport Blog. Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  23. ^ Our History Gateshead F.C.
  24. ^ "Conference play-off final: Newport's 25-year dream". 3 May 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  25. ^ "Aldershot Town FC enter administration". www.footballeconomy.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  26. ^ Osbourne, Chris (2014-08-13). "MK Dons 3–1 AFC Wimbledon". BBC Football. Retrieved 2014-11-13. It is 11 years since the old Wimbledon was moved 60 miles north to Milton Keynes by music mogul Pete Winkelman, and 10 years since the club was rebranded into MK Dons. But still AFC Wimbledon, the phoenix club created by fans, are searching for the win that may provide them with the smallest sensation of revenge.
  27. ^ White, Jim (2012-12-02). "MK Dons 2 AFC Wimbledon 1: match report". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2015-01-01. ... AFC Wimbledon, the phoenix club born from the most bitterly contested geographical switch in English football history ...
  28. ^ Doyle, Paul (2012-11-30). "Neal Ardley's phoenix club on the rise for FA Cup duel of raw emotion". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-01-01. Wimbledon ... as you may have gathered, is not the same thing as MK Dons. For most people connected with Wimbledon, MK Dons is the club that hijacked their one and absconded to Milton Keynes to raise an illegitimate offshoot ... fans founded a phoenix club, AFC Wimbledon, that rose from the ashes and soared up through the leagues, ascending five tiers in nine seasons to its current perch in League Two.
  29. ^ Griffin, Paul (31 August 2013). "THIS AFTERNOON'S MATCH PREVIEW – AFC HORNCHURCH (HOME)". www.pitchero.com. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  30. ^ "Town's fans get new football club". BBC Sport. 25 June 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  31. ^ "In May 2007 with Farnborough Town Football and Social Club Limited facing liquidation the football club was expelled from the Conference and was no more. The reformed did catch a break early on though. Benefiting from some league restructuring the 'price' for the club failing was a two level relegation and the new club was placed in the Southern League 1 South & West Division". www.farnboroughfc.co.uk.
  32. ^ "Halifax on the brink of collapse". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  33. ^ "Leagues agreed for 2008–09 season" BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  34. ^ "Supporters' trust set up AFC Fisher". Non-League Daily. 2009-05-29. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  35. ^ "Chester City wound up in High Court". BBC Sport. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  36. ^ "Rushden & Diamonds fans plan to set up 'phoenix' club". BBC Sport. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  37. ^ "Windsor FC – History in the Making". Windsor F.C. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  38. ^ "Phoenix club approved". www.croydon.co.uk. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  39. ^ "Darlington Match Preview". www.farsleyafc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  40. ^ "How Hereford FC rose from United's ashes with help from Manchester". www.theguardian.com. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  41. ^ Kershaw, Tom (2019-03-15). "North Ferriby United liquidated over unpaid debts". hulldailymail. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  42. ^ Thebootifulgame - (2019-04-30). "New chapter for North Ferriby as FA accept new Phoenix Club". The Bootiful Game. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  43. ^ Richardson, Egan (December 2012). "New beginnings". When Saturday Comes. 310.
  44. ^ Michel Mospinek (17 June 2012). "Gap: Le TGI a prononcé sa dissolution". foot-national.com. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  45. ^ http://www.turus.net/sport/fussball/news/8120-gedenkspiel-für-marco-eckstein-fc-sachsen-leipzig-vs-bsg-chemie-leipzig.html
  46. ^ "Blau-Weiss 90 ist wieder da und hat große Pläne". bz-berlin.de. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  47. ^ "Erinnerung an Blau Weiß 90 Berlin: Einmal Bundesliga und zurück". 11freunde.de. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  48. ^ Der FC Coburg spielt im Stocke-Stadion (in German) Neue Presse Coburg, published: 28 June 2012, accessed: 4 November 2014
  49. ^ "FOKUS: Minim Prestasi, Putra Samarinda Ditinggal Pusamania". 19 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  50. ^ "The fall of Fiorentina: How one of Italy's top clubs went bust". The Guardian. 27 November 2003. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  51. ^ "Fiorentina whole again". UEFA. 15 May 2003. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  52. ^ "Napoli reach end of the road". UEFA. 4 August 2004. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  53. ^ "Aurelio De Laurentiis arrives on the scene, and the story continues..." SSC Napoli. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  54. ^ a b Carraro, Franco (7 September 2004). "C.U. N°98/A (2004–05)" (PDF). Consiglio Federale (in Italian). FIGC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  55. ^ "Italian court declares Serie A side Parma bankrupt in 10-minute hearing". The Guardian. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  56. ^ "Parma promoted to Serie C in first season after bankruptcy". BBC Sport. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  57. ^ a b Carraro, Franco (16 August 2005). "C.U. N°61/A (2005–06)" (PDF). Presidente Federale (in Italian). FIGC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  58. ^ "Virslīgā spēlēs FK "Liepāja"". liepajniekiem.lv. 2014-01-23. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  59. ^ "Istorija" (in Lithuanian). FK Žalgiris. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  60. ^ Gelumbauskas, Evaldas (2 November 2012). "V.Knyzelis: „Po ketverių metų žaisime A lygoje"". Respublika.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  61. ^ Butautas, Ingvaras (22 March 2014). "Rūdiškėse atgimsta "Vėtra"". Sportas.info (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  62. ^ "Atgimusi „Dainava" taiko į pirmąją lygą" (in Lithuanian). DFK Dainava. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  63. ^ Šeduikytė, Dovilė (25 November 2014). "Vilniaus „Žalgirio" futbolo klubas atgavo savo istorinį pavadinimą". 15min (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  64. ^ Zdraveski, Filip. "Macedonian Football .com – Makedonski Fudbal .com – Macedonian Football (soccer) website – Schedule released for top two leagues and cup". macedonianfootball.com. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  65. ^ Author. "Macedonian Football .com – Makedonski Fudbal .com – Macedonian Football (soccer) website – Bashkimi's fans want football". macedonianfootball.com. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  66. ^ "New club Victorija, the ghost of Pobeda".
  67. ^ Ballymena United Club History Archived 2013-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ "Newry City FC to be relaunched". Destination Newry. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  69. ^ Quispe, Juan. "Familia Aurich". dechalaca.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  70. ^ a b Niall Macsweeney (n.d.), A Record of League of Ireland Football 1921/2-1984/5. Basildon:Association of Football Statisticians.
  71. ^ "Phoenix Piteşti " FC Argeş revine: echipa fanilor a debutat sîmbătă în Liga a 4-a, la un an după dispariţia legendei violet". gsp.ro. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  72. ^ Правительство Рязанской области обратилось в Ассоциацию «ПФЛ» с просьбой о включении ГАУ РО «ФК «Звезда» в состав членов (участников) Ассоциации Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ "Liquidation signals the final nail in Gretna coffin". Cumberland News. 2008-08-08. Archived from the original on 2009-03-14. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  74. ^ "New hope as Airdrieonians die". BBC. 21 May 2002. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  75. ^ "Airdrie buy Bankies". BBC. 9 July 2002. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  76. ^ "Clydebank FC – A History". ClydebankFC.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  77. ^ "Lord Hodge approves liquidation of former Rangers FC". BBC News. BBC. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  78. ^ "Charles Green completes Rangers purchase despite Walter Smith bid". BBC News. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  79. ^ "Agreement on Transfer of Membership". SFA website. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  80. ^ "Rangers are the same club that existed before liquidation, says SPFL chief executive Neil Doncaster". Daily Record. 1 January 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  81. ^ "BBC dismisses campaign to have Rangers described as a 'new club'". Evening Times. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  82. ^ "European clubs body downgrades Rangers' status but recognises history". STV. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  83. ^ "FIFA step into new row over Rangers 'old or new club' status". Evening Times. 24 May 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  84. ^ gradsubotica.co.rs Otkud ime plavi olubovi i blue marines (in Serbian)
  85. ^ http://www.sportal.rs/news.php?news=110628 Archived 2013-10-07 at the Wayback Machine
  86. ^ "Hajduk nastavlja kao OFK Hajduk Kula". mondo.rs. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  87. ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/sport.294.html:449968-Kula-Osnovan-novi-OFK-Hajduk
  88. ^ http://www.b92.net/sport/fudbal/vesti.php?yyyy=2013&mm=08&dd=20&nav_id=744740
  89. ^ "Ustanovitev mariborskega športnega društva Branik" (in Slovenian). MŠD Branik. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  90. ^ "NZS: Klubi" [NZS: Clubs] (in Slovenian). Football Association of Slovenia official website. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  91. ^ "Šišenski boj proti mlinom na veter". siol.net. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  92. ^ Aaron Rogan (13 July 2011). "Bohemians v Olimpija Ljubjana Preview". Sports News Ireland. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  93. ^ Andrea Luchetta (24 April 2012). "Dal letame alla fine e sbocciato il Maribor" [Maribor from the bottom to the heights]. La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). p. 52. Retrieved 28 April 2012.[permanent dead link]
  94. ^ "Po razpadu NK Primorja so Ajdovci postavili zdrave nogometne temelje". siol.net. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  95. ^ "La UD Mérida, en busca del terreno perdido" (PDF). es. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  96. ^ El Mérida AD sustituirá al Mérida UD en Tercera (in Spanish)
  97. ^ "La afición del Ciudad no se rinde y crea su propio equipo". infodeportemurcia.com (in Spanish). December 2, 2010. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012.
  98. ^ English summary; Unionistas de Salamanca's official website, 5 September 2013
  99. ^ "UD Ourense: De la plataforma social a club nacido en la grada". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 27 July 2014.
  100. ^ "Soccer Fans Cheer Return of the Strikers". Miami Herald. Miami. 5 November 1987.
  101. ^ "The Year in American Soccer - 1987". homepages.sover.net. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  102. ^ http://www.sjearthquakes.com/club/history
  103. ^ "The Spokesman-Review - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  104. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2014-10-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  105. ^ "Philadelphia Union open fan vote for USL team name". October 27, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  106. ^ New York Cosmos. "August 01, 2010 – Pele announces to the return of the New York Cosmos". New York Cosmos. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  107. ^ ""Tampa Bay's pro soccer team reclaims Rowdies name" – St. Pete Times, Dec. 15, 2011". Tampabay.com. December 15, 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  108. ^ Donovan, Pete (2012). Under the Halo: The Official History of Angels Baseball. San Rafael, California: INSIGHT EDITIONS. pp. 35, 36. ISBN 978-1-60887-019-6.
  109. ^ "Mets Timeline: 1959-1969". Mets.com. New York Mets. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  110. ^ "Asseco Prokom Gdynia – co dalej?". natemat.pl. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  111. ^ "Heat on at Spectrum". Surrey Advertiser. 2006. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
  112. ^ Anthony Jepson (2011). "Manchester Giants striding back for second coming". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
  113. ^ Keeper. "Manchester Phoenix Ice Hockey Club: History – Makewaves". makewav.es. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  114. ^ Svenska Fans: En hockeyförening bildas – Bajen Hockey IF. 15 May 2008.
  115. ^ Norsberg, Linus. Aftonbladet. "Nu kan fansens klubb bli Hammarby IF igen". [1]

This page was last updated at 2019-11-15 14:51, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari