The Hakka Transliteration Scheme (Chinese: 客家話拼音方案), or Pinfa refers to a romanization scheme published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in September 1960 as one of four systems collectively referred to as Guangdong Romanization. The scheme describes the Meixian dialect spoken in Meizhou, Guangdong which is considered to be the prestige dialect of Hakka, and was later adapted for Gan and Xiang.[1][2] This system utilizes the Latin alphabet with superscript numbers to represent tone.[3]



This system uses the Latin alphabet, excluding the letters ⟨r⟩ and ⟨w⟩. It also adds the letter ⟨ê⟩ to represent [ɛ].[3]


There are 19 initials used, in addition to the null initial which occurs when no consonant is in the initial position. These are shown below:

b [p] 波 p [pʰ] 婆 m [m] 摸 f [f] 火 v [v] 窩
d [t] 多 t [tʰ] 拖 n [n] 挪 l [l] 羅
g [k] 哥 k [kʰ] 科 ng [ŋ] 我 h [h] 河
j [t͡si-] 擠 q [t͡sʰi-] 妻 x [si-] 西
z [t͡s] 資 c [t͡sʰ] 雌 s [s] 思

The letter ⟨i⟩ which follows the consonants ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩ and ⟨s⟩, represents [ɨ] e.g. 資 zi1, 雌 ci1, 思 si1.


There are a total of 74 finals, shown below:

i [ɨ] 資 i [i] 衣 u [u] 姑
a [a] 阿 ia [ia] 也 ua [ua] 掛
o [ɔ] 哦 io [iɔ] 喲 uo [uɔ] 過
ê [ɛ] 這 iê [iɛ] (撒) uê [uɛ] 穢
ai [ai] 挨 iai [iai] 椰 uai [uai] 怪
oi [ɔi] 哀
au [au] 凹 iau [iau] 腰
êu [ɛu] 歐
iu [iu] 有
iui [iui] 銳 ui [ui] 貴
am [am] 庵 iam [iam] 淹
êm [ɛm] 砧
em [əm] 針 im [im] 陰
an [an]}} 班 ian [ian] 煙 uan [uan] 關
on [ɔn] 安 ion [iɔn] 阮 uon [uɔn] 管
ên [ɛn] 恩 iên [iɛn] 邊 uên [uɛn] 耿
en [ən] 真 in [in] 因
iun [iun] 允 un [un] 敦
ang [aŋ] 冷 iang [iaŋ] 影 uang [uaŋ] 礦
ong [ɔŋ]} 江 iong [iɔŋ] 央 uong [uɔŋ] 光
iung [iuŋ] 雍 ung [uŋ] 工
ab [ap] 鴨 iab [iap] 葉
êb [ɛp] 粒
eb [əp] 汁 ib [ip] 邑
ad [at] 八 iad [iat] 乙 uad [uat] 刮
od [ɔt] 遏
êd [ɛt] 北 iêd [iɛt] 鱉 uêd [uɛt] 國
ed [ət] 質 id [it] 一
iud [iut] (郁) ud [ut] 骨
ag [ak] 扼 iag [iak] 錫 uag [uak] □
og [ɔk] 惡 iog [iɔk] 約 uog [uɔk] 郭
iug [iuk] 育 ug [uk] 督
m [m] 唔 n [n] 五

In the instance where a final beginning with ⟨i⟩ such as ⟨i⟩ ⟨ia⟩ ⟨iau⟩ etc. without an initial consonant (null initial) the ⟨i⟩ is replaced with ⟨y⟩, e.g. ⟨yi⟩, ⟨ya⟩, ⟨yau⟩ etc.


Tone class 陰平 陽平 上聲 去聲 陰入 陽入
Tone number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Tone contour 44 11 31 52 11 55






See also


  1. ^ https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00180702/document
  2. ^ "Gan language and pronunciation". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  3. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20100422235107/http://www.sungwh.freeserve.co.uk/chinese/meixian.htm

歐陽覺亞等。廣州話、客家話、潮汕話與普通話對照詞典。廣州:廣東人民出版社,2005年9月1日, p. 542-543. ISBN 7218050603.

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