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Plutonium

Plutonium, 94Pu
Two shiny pellets of plutonium of about 3 cm in diameter
Plutonium
Pronunciation/plˈtniəm/
Appearancesilvery white, tarnishing to dark gray in air
Mass number[244]
Plutonium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Sm

Pu

(Uqo)
neptuniumplutoniumamericium
Atomic number (Z)94
Groupn/a
Periodperiod 7
Block  f-block
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point912.5 K ​(639.4 °C, ​1182.9 °F)
Boiling point3505 K ​(3228 °C, ​5842 °F)
Density (near r.t.)19.85 (239Pu)[1] g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)16.63 g/cm3
Heat of fusion2.82 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization333.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity35.5 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1756 1953 2198 2511 2926 3499
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7, +8 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 584.7 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 159 pm
Covalent radius187±1 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of plutonium
Other properties
Natural occurrencefrom decay
Crystal structuremonoclinic
Monoclinic crystal structure for plutonium
Speed of sound2260 m/s
Thermal expansion46.7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity6.74 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity1.460 µΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Young's modulus96 GPa
Shear modulus43 GPa
Poisson ratio0.21
CAS Number7440-07-5
History
Namingafter dwarf planet Pluto, itself named after classical god of the underworld Pluto
DiscoveryGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan (1940–1)
Main isotopes of plutonium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
238Pu trace 87.74 y SF
α 234U
239Pu trace 2.41×104 y SF
α 235U
240Pu trace 6500 y SF
α 236U
241Pu syn 14 y β 241Am
SF
242Pu syn 3.73×105 y SF
α 238U
244Pu trace 8.08×107 y α 240U
SF
Category Category: Plutonium

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