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Prime Minister of Albania

Prime Minister of Albania
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë.svg
Emblem of the Prime Minister
Rama in 2020
Incumbent
Edi Rama

since 15 September 2013
StyleHis Excellency
Member ofCouncil of Ministers
ResidenceKryeministria
AppointerPresident
Formation29 November 1912
First holderIsmail Qemali
WebsiteOfficial Page

The Prime Minister of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. The prime minister holds the executive power of the nation and represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings.

The prime minister is appointed by the president of Albania after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Albania to stay in office. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The prime minister is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a four-year term. The Constitution of Albania sets no limit as to office terms of the prime minister.

The 33rd and current officeholder is Edi Rama of the Socialist Party who was elected on 23 June 2013 and started his first four-year-term on 15 September 2013.

Powers, duties and responsibilities

The prime minister of the Albania, officially styled Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Albanian system of government.

One important role of the president is to designate a candidate for the office of prime minister who, in the opinion of the president, is best able to command a majority of the members of the Parliament.[1] As head of government, the prime minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors. If the prime minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising its executive power, the deputy prime minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the cabinet and the council of ministers.

The Constitution states that the prime minister represents the council of ministers and chairs its meetings,[2] outlines and presents the principal general policies of the state and is responsible for them, assures the implementation of legislation and policies approved by the Council of Ministers, coordinates and supervises the work of the members of the Council of Ministers and other institutions of the central state administration, performs other duties contemplated in the Constitution and laws, resolves disagreements among ministers, and issues orders in the exercise of his powers.[3] The prime minister can also initiate a proceeding of the Constitutional Court of Albania.[4]

Oath

Before assuming duty, the prime minister-elect is required to take an oath of office before the President, swearing loyalty to the Constitution. The text of the oath in its Albanian form is sensitive to gender and all nouns always retain a neutral form. The prime minister-elect takes the following oath of office, specified by the Constitution:[5][6]

Albanian: Betohem se do t’i bindem Kushtetutës dhe ligjeve të vendit, do të respektoj të drejtat dhe liritë e shtetasve, do të mbroj pavarësinë e Republikës së Shqipërisë dhe do t’i shërbej interesit të përgjithshëm dhe përparimit të Popullit Shqiptar. The President may add: Zoti më ndihmoftë!

English:

I swear that I will obey to the Constitution and laws of the country, that I will respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect the independence of the Republic of Albania, and I will serve the general interest and the progress of the Albanian People. The President may add: So help me God!

Office and residence

The facade of the Kryeministria.

The Prime Minister's Office (Albanian: Kryeministria) is the official office and residence of the prime minister. It provides secretarial assistance to the prime minister. The prime minister through his office coordinates with all ministers in the central union cabinet, minister of independent charges and governors and ministers of state government. Furthermore informal meetings between the prime minister and other government or foreign officials takes place in the Office. It also consists of the immediate staff of the prime minister of Albania, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the prime minister. Since 1941, the building serves as the office and residence of the prime minister. The building is in the capital city of Tirana at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, near the Mother Teresa Square.

The building was planned by the Italian architects Florestano Di Fausto and Gherardo Bosio, and constructed together with the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, the Mother Teresa Square and all the buildings located on these squares, during the Italian occupation of Albania in 1939 to 1941, in a Rationalist style.

List of prime ministers (1912–present)

No. Portrait Name Term in office Government
Flag of the Provisional Government of Albania (1912–1914).svg Albania (1912–1914)[7]
1 Ismail Qemalii.jpeg Ismail Qemali
(1844–1919)
Ismail Qemali (nënshkrim).svg
4 December 1912 22 January 1914 Provisional Government
1 year, 1 month and 18 days
International Control Commission
(22 January 1914 – 7 March 1914)
Flag of Albania (1914-1920).svg Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
2 Turhan Pashë Përmeti.jpg Turhan Pasha Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nënshkrim).svg
14 March 1914 3 September 1914 Përmeti Governments (I and II)
5 months and 20 days
3 Essad Pasha Toptani.jpg Esad Toptani
(1863–1920)
Esat Toptani (nënshkrim).svg
5 October 1914 27 January 1916 Toptani Government
1 year, 3 months and 22 days
Austro-Hungarian Command
(23 January 1916 – 30 October 1918)
Turhan Pashë Përmeti.jpg Turhan Pasha Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nënshkrim).svg
25 December 1918 29 January 1920 Përmeti III Government
1 year, 1 month and 4 days
4 Sulejman Delvina1.jpg Sulejman Delvina
(1884–1933)
Sylejman Delvina (nënshkrim).svg
30 January 1920 14 November 1920 Delvina Government
9 months and 15 days
5 Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Ilias Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim).svg
15 November 1920 16 October 1921 Vrioni Governments (I and II)
11 months and 1 day
6 Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait).jpg Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nënshkrim).svg
16 October 1921 6 December 1921 Evangjeli Government
1 month and 20 days
7 Qazim Koculi (portret).jpg Qazim Koculi
Acting Prime Minister
(1887–1943)
Qazim Koculi (nënshkrim).svg
6 December 1921 6 December 1921 Koculi Government
0 days
8 Hasan Prishtina (portret).jpg Hasan Prishtina
(1873–1933)
Hasan Prishtina (nënshkrim).svg
7 December 1921 12 December 1921 Prishtina Government
5 days
9 Idhomen Kosturi.jpg Idhomen Kosturi
Acting Prime Minister
(1873–1943)
Idhomen Kosturi (nënshkrim).svg
12 December 1921 24 December 1921 Kosturi Government
12 days
10 Xhafer Ypi.jpg Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
Xhafer Ypi (nënshkrim).svg
24 December 1921 2 December 1922 Ypi Government
11 months and 8 days
11 Zog I (portrait).jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
2 December 1922 25 February 1924 Zogu I Government
1 year, 2 months and 23 days
12 Shefqet Vërlaci (portret).jpg Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Vërlaci (nënshkrim).svg
3 March 1924 27 May 1924 Vërlaci Government
2 months and 24 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Ilias Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim).svg
30 May 1924 10 June 1924 Vrioni III Government
11 days
13 Fan Stilian Noli.jpg Fan Noli
(1882–1965)
Fan Noli (nënshkrim).svg
16 June 1924 24 December 1924 Noli Government
6 months and 8 days
Zog I (portrait).jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
6 January 1925 23 September 1925 Zogu Governments (II and III)
8 months and 17 days
Flag of Albania (1926-1928).svg Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
Zog I (portrait).jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
28 September 1925 1 September 1928 Zogu Governments (IV, V, VI and VII)
2 years, 11 months and 4 days
Flag of the Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939).svg Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
14 Koço Kotta.jpg Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nënshkrim).svg
5 September 1928 5 March 1930 Kotta I Government
1 year and 6 months
Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait).jpg Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nënshkrim).svg
6 March 1930 16 October 1935 Evangjeli Governments (II, III and IV)
5 years, 7 months and 10 days
15 Mehdi Frashëri (portret).jpg Mehdi Frashëri
(1872–1963)
Mehdi Frashëri (nënshkrim).svg
21 October 1935 7 November 1936 Frashëri Government
1 year and 17 days
Koço Kotta.jpg Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nënshkrim).svg
9 November 1936 7 April 1939 Kotta II Government
2 years, 4 months and 29 days
Xhafer Ypi.jpg Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
Xhafer Ypi (nënshkrim).svg
8 April 1939 12 April 1939 Ypi II Government
4 days
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Italian Occupation (1939–1943)
Shefqet Vërlaci (portret).jpg Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Vërlaci (nënshkrim).svg
12 April 1939 3 December 1941 Vërlaci II Government
2 years, 7 months and 21 days
16 Mustafa Merlika Kruja.jpg Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
(1887–1958)
Mustafa Kruja (nënshkrim).svg
3 December 1941 4 January 1943 Merlika-Kruja Government
1 year, 1 month and 1 day
17 Ekrem Libohova.jpg Ekrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nënshkrim).svg
18 January 1943 11 February 1943 Libohova I Government
24 days
18 Maliq Bushati (portret).jpg Maliq Bushati
(1880–1946)
Maliq Bushati (nënshkrim).svg
12 February 1943 28 April 1943 Bushati Government
2 months and 16 days
Ekrem Libohova.jpg Ekrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nënshkrim).svg
11 May 1943 10 September 1943 Libohova II Government
3 months and 30 days
German Occupation (1943–1944)
19 Ibrahim Biçaku (portret).jpg Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
Ibrahim Biçakçiu (nënshkrim).svg
14 September 1943 4 November 1943 Biçaku I Government
1 month and 21 days
20 Rexhep Mitrovica (portret).jpg Rexhep Mitrovica
(1887–1967)
Rexhep Mitrovica (nënshkrim).svg
5 November 1943 16 June 1944 Mitrovica Government
7 months and 11 days
21 Fiqiri Dine.jpg Fiqri Dine
(1897–1960)
Fiqiri Dine (nënshkrim).svg
18 July 1944 28 August 1944[8] Dine Government
1 month and 10 days
Ibrahim Biçaku (portret).jpg Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
Ibrahim Biçakçiu (nënshkrim).svg
6 September 1944 25 October 1944 Biçaku II Government
1 month and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944–1991)
22 HODŽA druhá míza.jpg Enver Hoxha
(1908–1985)
Enver Hoxha (signature).svg
23 October 1944 19 July 1954 Hoxha Governments (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and IX)
9 years, 8 months and 26 days
23 1967-01 1966年阿尔巴尼亚穆罕默德·谢胡 Mehmet Ismail Shehu.jpg Mehmet Shehu
(1913–1981)
Mehmet Shehu (nënshkrim).svg
20 July 1954 18 December 1981 Shehu Governments (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and XIII)
27 years, 4 months and 28 days
24 ? politic personality icon.svg Adil Çarçani
(1922–1997)
Adil Çarçani (nënshkrim).svg
15 January 1982 22 February 1991 Çarçani Governments (I, II, III, IV, V and VI)
9 years, 1 month and 7 days
Flag of Albania.svg Republic of Albania (1991–present)
25 Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
22 February 1991 5 June 1991 Nano Governments (I and II)
3 months and 14 days
26 ? politic personality icon.svg Ylli Bufi
(born 1948)
Ylli Bufi (nënshkrim).svg
11 June 1991 6 December 1991 Bufi Government
5 months and 25 days
27 ? politic personality icon.svg Vilson Ahmeti
(born 1951)
Vilson Ahmeti (nënshkrim).svg
18 December 1991 13 April 1992 Ahmeti Government
3 months and 26 days
28 Aleksandër Meksi.jpg Aleksandër Meksi
(born 1939)
Aleksandër Meksi (nënshkrim).svg
13 April 1992 1 March 1997 Meksi Governments (I, II, III and IV)
4 years, 10 months and 16 days
29 ? politic personality icon.svg Bashkim Fino
(1962–2021)
Bashkim Fino (nënshkrim).svg
11 March 1997 24 July 1997 Fino Government
4 months and 13 days
Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
25 July 1997 28 September 1998 Nano Governments (III and IV)
1 year, 2 months and 3 days
30 Pandeli Majko.jpg Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nënshkrim).svg
2 October 1998 25 October 1999 Majko I Government
1 year and 23 days
31 Ilir Meta (cropped).jpg Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
Ilir Meta (nënshkrim).svg
28 October 1999 29 January 2002 Meta Governments (I and II)
2 years, 3 months and 1 day
Pandeli Majko.jpg Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nënshkrim).svg
22 February 2002 25 July 2002 Majko II Government
5 months and 3 days
Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
29 July 2002 10 September 2005 Nano Governments (V and VI)
3 years, 1 month and 12 days
32 Sali Berisha (cropped).jpg Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
Sali Berisha (nënshkrim).svg
10 September 2005 13 September 2013 Berisha Governments (I and II)
8 years and 3 days
33 Edi Rama - Feb2020.jpg Edi Rama
(born 1964)
Edi Rama (nënshkrim).svg
15 September 2013 Incumbent Rama Governments (I and II)
7 years, 8 months and 25 days

See also

References

  1. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. At the beginning of a legislature, as well as when the position of Prime Minister is vacant, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
  2. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 20. represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings;
  3. ^ Article 102, Section 1-3 of the Constitution of Albania(22 November 1998)
  4. ^ Article 134, Section 1(b) of the Constitution of Albania(22 November 1998)
  5. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. Before taking office, the Prime Minister, the deputy prime minister, and the ministers take an oath before the President of the Republic.
  6. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutes dhe ligjeve te vendit, do te respektoj te drejtat dhe lirite e shtetasve, do te mbroj pavaresine e Republikes se Shqiperise dhe do t'i sherbej interesit te pergjithshem dhe perparimit te Popullit Shqiptar". Presidenti mund te shtoje edhe: "zoti me ndihmofte
  7. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2012). Kryeministrat dhe ministrat e shtetit shqiptar në 100 vjet. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 273. ISBN 978-9994356225. OCLC 861296248.
  8. ^ Pearson, Owen (2005). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism, 1940-1945. London: The Centre for Albanian Studies. p. 1982. ISBN 1-84511-014-5.

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