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Réunion

Réunion

La Réunion  (French)
Capital of Saint-Denis
Capital of Saint-Denis
Motto(s): 
Florebo quocumque ferar
(I will flourish wherever I am brought)
Département 974 in France (zoom).svg
Coordinates: 21°06′52″S 55°31′57″E / 21.11444°S 55.53250°E / -21.11444; 55.53250Coordinates: 21°06′52″S 55°31′57″E / 21.11444°S 55.53250°E / -21.11444; 55.53250
Country France
PrefectureSaint-Denis
Departments1
Government
 • President of Regional CouncilDidier Robert (LR)
Area
 • Total2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)
Area rank15th region
Population
(January 2021)[1]
 • Total858,450
 • Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Réunionese
Time zoneUTC+04:00 (RET)
ISO 3166 code
GDP (nominal) (2019)[2]Ranked 13th
Total€19.7 billion (US$22.0 bn)
Per capita€22,970 (US$25,720)
NUTS RegionFRY4
WebsitePrefecture
Regional Council
Departmental Council

Réunion (French: La Réunion, [la ʁe.y.njɔ̃] (About this soundlisten); Reunionese Creole: La Rénion; previously Île Bourbon) is an island in the Indian Ocean that is an overseas department and region of France. It is located approximately 550 km (340 mi) east of the island of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of the island of Mauritius. As of January 2021, it had a population of 858,450.[1]

Like the other four overseas departments, Réunion also holds the status of a region of France, and is an integral part of the French Republic. Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and is part of the eurozone.[3] Réunion and the fellow French overseas department of Mayotte are the only eurozone regions located in the Southern Hemisphere.

Lo Mavéli or Lö Mahavéli, the unofficial flag of Réunion from 2003 used officially by various local authorities, like Saint-Denis and Saint-Philippe.

As in the rest of France, the official language of Réunion is French. In addition, a majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole.

History

The island has been inhabited since the 16th century, when people from France and Madagascar settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848 (a date celebrated yearly on the island), when the French Second Republic abolished slavery in the French colonies. However, indentured workers continued to be brought to Réunion from South India, among other places. The island became an overseas department of France in 1946.

An 1816 ten-centime coin from Réunion, from when it was still called Isle de Bourbon

Not much is known of Réunion's history prior to the arrival of the Portuguese in the early 16th century.[4] Arab traders were familiar with it by the name Dina Morgabin, "Western Island".[5] The island is possibly featured on a map from 1153 AD by Al Sharif el-Edrisi.[citation needed] The island might also have been visited by Swahili or Austronesian (Ancient Indonesian–Malaysian) sailors on their journey to the west from the Malay Archipelago to Madagascar.[4]

The first European discovery of the area was made around 1507 by Portuguese explorer Diogo Fernandes Pereira, but the specifics are unclear. The uninhabited island might have been first sighted by the expedition led by Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, who gave his name to the island group around Réunion, the Mascarenes.[6] Réunion itself was dubbed Santa Apolónia after a favourite saint,[5] which suggests that the date of the Portuguese discovery could have been 9 February, her saint day. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira is said to have landed on the islands of Réunion and Rodrigues in 1509.[citation needed]

By the early 1600s, nominal Portuguese rule had left Santa Apolónia virtually untouched.[6] The island was then occupied by France and administered from Port Louis, Mauritius. Although the first French claims date from 1638, when François Cauche and Salomon Goubert visited in June 1638,[7] the island was officially claimed by Jacques Pronis of France in 1642, when he deported a dozen French mutineers to the island from Madagascar. The convicts were returned to France several years later, and in 1649, the island was named Île Bourbon after the French royal House of Bourbon. Colonisation started in 1665, when the French East India Company sent the first settlers.[6]

Following the fall of the House of Bourbon during the French Revolution, the island was renamed "Île de la Réunion" in 1793 by a decree of the Convention Nationale (the elected revolutionary constituent assembly). This new name commemorates the union of revolutionaries from Marseille with the National Guard in Paris, which took place on 10 August 1792. In 1801, the island was renamed "Île Bonaparte", after First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte.

In 1810, during the Napoleonic Wars, the island was invaded by a British Royal Navy squadron led by Commodore Josias Rowley, and the British authorities used the old name of "Bourbon". When the island was restored to France by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it retained the name of "Bourbon". This continued until the fall of the restored Bourbons during the French Revolution of 1848, when the island was once again given the name "Île de la Réunion".[6]

From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French colonisation, supplemented by importing Africans, Chinese and Indians as workers, contributed to ethnic diversity in the population. From 1690, most of the non-Europeans on the island were enslaved. The colony abolished slavery on 20 December 1848. Afterwards, many of the foreign workers came as indentured workers. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the importance of the island as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.[citation needed]

Hindu festival, 19th century

During the Second World War, Réunion was under the authority of the Vichy regime until 30 November 1942, when Free French forces took over the island with the destroyer Léopard.[citation needed]

Réunion became a département d'outre-mer (overseas département) of France on 19 March 1946. INSEE assigned to Réunion the department code 974, and the region code 04 when regional councils were created in 1982 in France, including in existing overseas departments which also became overseas regions.

Over about two decades in the late 20th century (1963–1982), 1,630 children from Réunion were relocated to rural areas of metropolitan France, particularly to Creuse, ostensibly for education and work opportunities. That program was led by influential Gaullist politician Michel Debré, who was an MP for Réunion at the time. Many of these children were abused or disadvantaged by the families with whom they were placed. Known as the Children of Creuse, they and their fate came to light in 2002 when one of them, Jean-Jacques Martial, filed suit against the French state for kidnapping and deportation of a minor.[8] Other similar lawsuits were filed over the following years, but all were dismissed by French courts and finally by the European Court of Human Rights in 2011.[9]

In 2005 and 2006, Réunion was hit by a crippling epidemic of chikungunya, a disease spread by mosquitoes. According to the BBC News, 255,000 people on Réunion had contracted the disease as of 26 April 2006.[10] The neighbouring islands of Mauritius and Madagascar also suffered epidemics of this disease during the same year.[11][12] A few cases also appeared in mainland France, carried by people travelling by airline. The French government of Dominique de Villepin sent an emergency aid package worth €36 million and deployed about 500 troops in an effort to eradicate mosquitoes on the island.[citation needed]

Politics

Map of the European Union (pre January 31st 2020) in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

Réunion sends seven deputies to the French National Assembly and three senators to the Senate.

Administrative divisions

Administratively, Réunion is divided into 24 communes (municipalities) grouped into four arrondissements. It is also subdivided into 49 cantons, meaningful only for electoral purposes at the departmental or regional level.[13] It is a French overseas department, hence a French overseas region. The low number of communes, compared with French metropolitan departments of similar size and population, is unique: most of its communes encompass several localities, sometimes separated by significant distances.

Municipalities (communes)

Name Area (km2) Population Coat of Arms Arrondissement Map
Bras-Panon 88.55 12,768 Blason Ville Fr Bras-Panon (Réunion).svg Saint-Benoît Locator map of Bras-Panon 2018.png
Cilaos 84.4 5,492 Blason ville DomFr Cilaos (Réunion).svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of Cilaos 2018.png
Entre-Deux 66.83 6,914 Blason ville DomFr Entre-Deux (Réunion).svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of Entre-Deux 2018.png
L'Étang-Salé 38.65 14,108 Blason ville DomFr Étang-Salé (Réunion).svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of L’Étang-Salé 2018.png
La Plaine-des-Palmistes 83.19 6,568 Saint-Benoît Locator map of La Plaine-des-Palmistes 2018.png
La Possession 118.35 32,633 Blason ville DomFr La Possession (Réunion).svg Saint-Paul Locator map of La Possession 2018.png
Le Port 16.62 33,531 LOGO LE PORT 2016.jpg Saint-Paul Locator map of Le Port 2018.png
Le Tampon 165.43 79,385 Ville du Tampon (Réunion).png Saint-Pierre Locator map of Le Tampon 2018.png
Les Avirons 26.27 11,246 Blason ville DomFr Les Avirons (La Réunion).svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of Les Avirons 2018.png
Les Trois-Bassins 42.58 7,076 Saint-Paul Locator map of Les Trois-Bassins 2018.png
Petite-Île 33.93 12,308 Blason ville Fr Petite-Ile (Réunion).svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of Petite-Île 2018.png
Saint-André 53.07 56,747 Saint-Benoît Locator map of Saint-André 2018.png
Saint-Benoît 229.61 37,274 Saint-Benoît Locator map of Saint-Benoît 2018.png
Saint-Denis 142.79 150,535 Blason St-Denis Réunion DOM.svg Saint-Denis Locator map of Saint-Denis 2018.png
Saint-Joseph 178.5 37,517 Ville de Saint-Joseph (Réunion).png Saint-Pierre Locator map of Saint-Joseph 2018.png
Saint-Leu 118.37 34,196 Blason ville DomFr Saint-Leu (Réunion).svg Saint-Paul Locator map of Saint-Leu 2018.png
Saint-Louis 98.9 53,589 Blason ville DomFr Saint-Louis (Réunion).svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of Saint-Louis - Réunion 2018.png
Saint-Paul 241.28 103,492 Blason ville fr Saint-Paul (La Réunion).svg Saint-Paul Locator map of Saint-Paul 2018.png
Saint-Philippe 153.94 5,149 Saint-Pierre Locator map of Saint-Philippe 2018.png
Saint-Pierre 95.99 84,961 Blason St-Pierre Réunion DOM.svg Saint-Pierre Locator map of Saint-Pierre 2018.png
Sainte-Marie 87.21 33,234 Blason ville DomFr Sainte-Marie (Réunion).svg Saint-Denis Locator map of Sainte-Marie 2018.png
Sainte-Rose 177.6 6,296 Saint-Benoît Locator map of Sainte-Rose - Réunion 2018.png
Sainte-Suzanne 58.84 23,718 Saint-Denis Locator map of Sainte-Suzanne 2018.png
Salazie 103.82 7,224 Blason DomFr Salazie (Réunion).svg Saint-Benoît Locator map of Salazie 2018.png

The communes voluntarily grouped themselves into five intercommunalities for cooperating in some domains, apart from the four arrondissements to which they belong for purposes of applying national laws and executive regulation. After some changes in the composition, name and status of intercommunalities, all of them operate with the status of agglomeration communities, and apply their own local taxation (in addition to national, regional, departmental, and municipal taxes) and have an autonomous budget decided by the assembly representing all member communes. This budget is also partly funded by the state, the region, the department, and the European Union for some development and investment programs. Every commune in Réunion is now a member of an intercommunality with its own taxation, to which member communes have delegated their authority in various areas.

Foreign relations

Although diplomacy, military, and French government matters are handled by Paris, Réunion is a member of La Francophonie, the Indian Ocean Commission, the International Trade Union Confederation, the Universal Postal Union, the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, and the World Federation of Trade Unions in its own right.

Geography

The island is 63 km (39 mi) long; 45 km (28 mi) wide; and covers 2,512 km2 (970 sq mi). It is above a hotspot in the Earth's crust. The Piton de la Fournaise, a shield volcano on the eastern end of Réunion Island, rises more than 2,631 m (8,632 ft) above sea level and is sometimes called a sister to Hawaiian volcanoes because of the similarity of climate and volcanic nature. It has erupted more than 100 times since 1640, and is under constant monitoring, most recently erupting on 2 April 2020.[14] During another eruption in April 2007, the lava flow was estimated at 3,000,000 m3 (3,900,000 cu yd) per day.[15] The hotspot that fuels Piton de la Fournaise also created the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues.

The Piton des Neiges volcano, the highest point on the island at 3,070 m (10,070 ft) above sea level, is northwest of the Piton de la Fournaise. Collapsed calderas and canyons are south west of the mountain. While the Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, the Piton des Neiges is dormant. Its name is French for "peak of snows", but snowfall on the summit of the mountain is rare. The slopes of both volcanoes are heavily forested. Cultivated land and cities like the capital city of Saint-Denis are concentrated on the surrounding coastal lowlands. Offshore, part of the west coast is characterised by a coral reef system. Réunion also has three calderas: the Cirque de Salazie, the Cirque de Cilaos and the Cirque de Mafate. The last is accessible only on foot or by helicopter.

Climate

The climate in Réunion is tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation. The weather is cool and dry from May to November, but hot and rainy from November to April. Precipitation levels vary greatly within the island, with the east being much wetter than the west. More than 6m of rain a year fall on some parts of the east and less than 1m a year falls on the west coast.[16] Réunion holds the world records for the most rainfall in 12-, 24-, 72- and 96-hour periods.[17]

Beaches

Réunion hosts many tropical and unique beaches. They are often equipped with barbecues, amenities, and parking spaces. Hermitage Beach is the most extensive and best-preserved lagoon in Réunion Island and a popular snorkelling location.[18] It is a white sand beach lined with casuarina trees under which the locals often organise picnics. La Plage des Brisants is a well-known surfing spot, with many athletic and leisurely activities taking place. Each November, a film festival is also organised in La Plage des Brisant's. Movies are projected on a large screen in front of a crowd. Beaches at Boucan Canot are surrounded by a stretch of restaurants that particularly cater to tourists. L'Étang-Salé on the west coast is a particularly unique beach as it is covered in black sand consisting of tiny fragments of basalt. This occurs when lava contacts water, it cools rapidly and shatters into the sand and fragmented debris of various size. Much of the debris is small enough to be considered sand. Grand Anse is a tropical white-sand beach lined with coconut trees in the south of Réunion, with a rock pool built for swimmers, a pétanque playground, and a picnic area. Le Vieux Port in Saint Philippe is a green-sand beach consisting of tiny olivine crystals, formed by the 2007 lava flow, making it one of the youngest beaches on Earth.[19]

Environment

Since 2010, Réunion is home to a UNESCO World Heritage Site that covers about 40% of the island's area and coincides with the central zone of the Réunion National Park.[21] The island is part of the Mascarene forests terrestrial ecoregion.[22]

Wildlife

Réunion is home to a variety of birds such as the white-tailed tropicbird (French: paille en queue).[23] Its largest land animal is the panther chameleon, Furcifer pardalis. Much of the west coast is ringed by coral reef which harbours, among other animals, sea urchins, conger eels, and parrot fish. Sea turtles and dolphins also inhabit the coastal waters. Humpback whales migrate north to the island from the Antarctic waters annually during the Southern Hemisphere winter (June–September) to breed and feed, and can be routinely observed from the shores of Réunion during this season. At least 19 species formerly endemic to Réunion have become extinct following human colonisation. For example, the Réunion giant tortoise became extinct after being slaughtered in vast numbers by sailors and settlers of the island.

Between 2010 and 2017, 23 shark attacks occurred in the waters of Réunion, of which nine were fatal.[24] In July 2013, the Prefect of Réunion Michel Lalande announced a ban on swimming, surfing, and bodyboarding off more than half of the coast. Lalande also said 45 bull sharks and 45 tiger sharks would be culled, in addition to the 20 already killed as part of scientific research into the illness ciguatera.[25]

Migrations of humpback whales contributed to a boom of whale watching industries on Réunion, and watching rules have been governed by the OMAR (Observatoire Marin de la Réunion) and Globice (Groupe local d'observation et d'identification des cétacés).

Gardening and Bourbon roses

The first members of the "Bourbon" group of garden roses originated on this island (then still Île Bourbon, hence the name) from a spontaneous hybridisation between Damask roses and Rosa chinensis,[26] which had been brought there by the colonists. The first Bourbon roses were discovered on the island in 1817.[27]

Demographics

Manapany in 2004
Cilaos town, high in the Cirque (2003)
People in Réunion (2018)
Sri Maha Kalakambal Temple in Saint-Denis, Réunion

Historical population

Year Population Year Population Year Population
1671 90 1830 101,300 1961 349,282
1696 269 1848 110,300 1967 416,525
1704 734 1849 120,900 1974 476,675
1713 1,171 1860 200,000 1982 515,814
1717 2,000 1870 212,000 1990 597,823
1724 12,550 1887 163,881 1999 706,300
1764 25,000 1897 173,192 2008 808,250
1777 35,100 1926 182,637 2013 835,103
1789 61,300 1946 241,708 2018 855,961
1826 87,100 1954 274,370 2020 858,450
Official data from INSEE by census or estimate; estimates shown in italics.

Migrations and ethnic groups

At the 2015 census, 83.1% of the inhabitants of Réunion were born on the island, 11.4% were born in Metropolitan France, 0.8% were born in Mayotte, 0.3% were born in the rest of Overseas France, and 4.4% were born in foreign countries (half of them children of French expatriates and settlers born in foreign countries, such as children of Réunionese settlers born in Madagascar during colonial times; the other half immigrants, i.e. people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth).[28]

In recent decades, the number of Metropolitan Frenchmen living on the island of Réunion has increased markedly: 37,487 natives of Metropolitan France lived in Réunion at the 1990 census, but their numbers more than doubled in 25 years and by the 2015 census 97,239 natives of Metropolitan France lived in Réunion.[28] Native Réunionese, meanwhile, have emigrated increasingly to Metropolitan France: the number of natives of Réunion living in Metropolitan France rose from 16,548 at the 1968 census to 92,354 at the 1990 census to 121,489 at the 2015 census, by which date nearly 15% of the natives of Réunion lived outside of Réunion.[28]

Réunion has experienced extremely little immigration of foreigners since World War Two, and by the 2015 census only 2.2% of the inhabitants of Réunion were immigrants. This is in contrast to the situation that prevailed from the middle of the 19th century until World War Two when many migrants from India, Eastern Asia, and Africa came to Réunion to work in the plantation economy. Their descendants have now become French citizens.

Place of birth of residents of Réunion
(at the 1990, 1999, 2010, and 2015 censuses)
Census Born in
Réunion
Born in
Metropolitan France
Born in
Mayotte
Born in the
rest of Overseas France
Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth¹
Immigrants²
2015 83.1% 11.4% 0.8% 0.3% 2.2% 2.2%
2010 84.1% 10.6% 0.8% 0.3% 2.2% 1.9%
1999 86.1% 9.1% 0.9% 0.4% 2.0% 1.4%
1990 90.4% 6.3% 0.2% 0.1% 1.9% 1.0%
¹Persons born abroad of French parents, such as Pieds-Noirs and children of French expatriates.
²An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
Source: INSEE[28]

Ethnic groups present include people of African, Indian, European, Malagasy and Chinese origin. Local names for these are Yabs, Cafres, Malbars and Chinois. All of the ethnic groups on the island are immigrant populations that have come to Réunion from Europe, Asia and Africa over the centuries. There are no indigenous people on the island, as it was originally deserted.[29] These populations have mixed from the earliest days of the island's colonial history (the first settlers married women from Madagascar and of Indo-Portuguese heritage), resulting in a majority population of mixed race and of "Creole" culture.

It is not known exactly how many people of each ethnicity live in Réunion, since the French census does not ask questions about ethnic origin,[30] which applies in Réunion because it is a part of France in accordance with the 1958 constitution. The extent of racial mixing on the island also makes ethnic estimates difficult. According to estimates, Whites make up roughly one quarter of the population,[31] Malbars make up more than 25% of the population and people of Chinese ancestry form roughly 3%.[32] The percentages for mixed race people and those of Afro-Malagasy origins vary widely in estimates. Also, some people of Vietnamese ancestry live on the island, though they are very few in number.[33][34][35]

Tamils are the largest group among the Indian community.[36] The island's community of Muslims from north western India, particularly Gujarat, and elsewhere is commonly referred to as zarabes.

Creoles (a name given to those born on the island, regardless of ethnic origins) make up the majority of the population. Groups that are not Creole include people recently arrived from Metropolitan France (known as zoreilles) and those from Mayotte and the Comoros as well as immigrants from Madagascar and Sri Lankan Tamil refugees.

Religion

Catholic church of Notre-Dame-des-Neiges in Cilaos

Religious affiliation (2000 censuses)[37]

 Hinduism (4.5%)
 Protestantism (4.2%)
 Islam (4.2%)
 Other Christian (1.8%)
 No religion (1.7%)
 Other (1.8%)

The predominant religion is Christianity, notably Roman Catholicism, with a single (Latin Rite) jurisdiction, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Denis-de-La Réunion. Religious Intelligence estimates Christians to be 84.9% of the population, followed by Hindus (6.7%) and Muslims (2.15%).[35] Chinese folk religion and Buddhism are also represented, among others.

Most large towns have a Hindu temple and a mosque.[38]

Culture

Réunionese culture is a blend (métissage) of European, African, Indian, Chinese and insular traditions. The most widely spoken language, Réunion Creole, derives from French.

Language

French is the sole official language of Réunion. Though not official, Réunion Creole is widely spoken alongside French. Creole is commonly used for informal purposes, whereas the official language for administrative purposes, as well as education, is French.[39]

Other languages spoken on Réunion include: Comorian varieties (especially Shimaore) and Malagasy, by recent immigrants from Mayotte and Madagascar; Mandarin, Hakka and Cantonese by members of the Chinese community; Indian languages, mostly Tamil, Gujarati and Urdu; and Arabic, spoken by a small community of Muslims. These languages are generally spoken by immigrants, as those born on the island tend to use French and Creole.

Cantonese, Arabic and Tamil are offered as optional languages in some schools.[36]

Music

There are two music genres which originated in Réunion: sega, which originated earlier and is also traditional in Mauritius, Rodrigues and Seychelles, and maloya, which originated in the 19th century and is only found in Réunion.

Sport

Moringue is a popular combat/dance sport similar to capoeira.

There are several famous Réunionese sportsmen and women like the handballer Jackson Richardson, as well as the karateka Lucie Ignace.

Professional footballers include Dimitri Payet, Ludovic Ajorque, Florent Sinama Pongolle and Guillaume Hoarau. Laurent Robert and ex-Hibernian and Celtic player Didier Agathe have also featured in movies. Agathe appeared in A Shot at Glory, whilst Robert was in Goal!.

Réunion has a number of contributions to worldwide professional surfing. It has been home to notable pro surfers including Jeremy Flores, Johanne Defay and Justine Mauvin. Famous break St Leu has been host to several world surfing championship competitions.

Since 1992, Réunion has hosted a number of ultramarathons under the umbrella name of the Grand Raid. As of 2018, four different races compose the Grand Raid: the Diagonale des Fous, The Trail de Bourbon, the Mascareignes, and the Zembrocal Trail.[40]

Media

Broadcasting

Réunion has a local public television channel, Réunion 1ère, which now forms part of France Télévision, and also receives France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5 and France 24 from metropolitan France, as well as France Ô, which shows programming from all of the overseas departments and territories. There are also two local private channels, Télé Kréol and Antenne Réunion.

It has a local public radio station, formerly Radio Réunion, but now known as Réunion 1ère, like its television counterpart. It also receives the Radio France networks France Inter, France Musique and France Culture. The first private local radio station, Radio Freedom, was introduced in 1981. They broadcast daily content about weather and local services.

Newspapers

Two main newspapers:

Film

Blogs

Economy

The east dock of Réunion's main seaport in Le Port (2006)
Man sorting Bourbon vanilla (2004)

In 2019, the GDP of Réunion at market exchange rates, not at PPP, was estimated at 19.7 billion euros (US$22.0 bn) and the GDP per capita (also at market exchange rates) was 22,970 euros (US$25,720).[2] Economic growth was around +3.0% per year in real terms from 2014 to 2017, then it fell to +1.7% in 2018 and rebounded to +2.2% in 2019.[42]

Sugar was traditionally the chief agricultural product and export. Tourism is now an important source of income.[43] The island's remote location combined with its stable political alignment with Europe makes it a key location for satellite receiving stations[44] and naval navigation.[45]

GDP sector composition in 2013 (contribution of each sector to the total gross value added):[46]

Sector % of total GVA
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 1.5%
Detail
Agriculture and forestry 1.1%
Fishing 0.3%
Mining and quarrying 0.0%
Manufacturing 4.4%
Detail
Food manufacturing
(of which: sugar and rum)
1.8%
(0.4%)
Petroleum and coal products manufacturing 0.0%
Non-food and non-petroleum/coal manufacturing 2.6%
Utilities 1.8%
Construction 5.4%
Market services 51.1%
Detail
Wholesale and retail trade 12.1%
Transportation and warehousing 3.5%
Accommodation and food services 1.6%
Information and communication 3.6%
Finance and insurance 3.9%
Real estate activities 15.2%
Professional, scientific and technical services 3.2%
Administrative and support services 3.5%
Other (entertainment, repair, personal and laundry services) 4.4%
Non-market services 35.9%
Detail
Public administration and defense 10.9%
Education, health care, elderly care, child day-care 24.9%

Unemployment is a major problem on Réunion, although the situation has improved markedly since the beginning of the 2000s: the unemployment rate, which stood above 30% from the early 1980s to the early 2000s, declined to 24.6% in 2007, then rebounded to 30.0% in 2011 due to the 2008 global financial crisis and subsequent Great Recession, but declined again after 2011, reaching 21.5% in 2019,[47] its lowest level in 40 years.[48]

In 2014, 40% of the population lived below the poverty line (defined by INSEE as 60% of Metropolitan France's median income; in 2014 the poverty line for a family of two parents and two young children was €2,064 (US$2,743) per month).[49]

Rum distillation contributes to the island's economy. A "Product of France", it is shipped to Europe for bottling, then shipped to consumers around the world.

Brasseries de Bourbon is the main brewery of the island, with Heineken as shareholder.

Public services

Health

In 2005–2006, Réunion experienced an epidemic of chikungunya, a viral disease similar to dengue fever brought in from East Africa, which infected almost a third of the population because of its transmission through mosquitoes. The epidemic has since been eradicated. See the History section for more details.

Transport

Roland Garros Airport serves the island, handling flights to mainland France, India, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania, Comoros, Seychelles, South Africa, China and Thailand. Pierrefonds Airport, a smaller airport, has some flights to Mauritius and Madagascar. In 2019 a light rail system was proposed to link Le Barachois with the airport.[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Années 1975 à 2021" (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  3. ^ Réunion is pictured on all Euro banknotes, on the back at the bottom of each note, right of the Greek ΕΥΡΩ (EURO) next to the denomination.
  4. ^ a b Allen, Richard B. (14 October 1999). Slaves, Freedmen and Indentured Laborers in Colonial Mauritius. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521641258.
  5. ^ a b Tabuteau, Jacques (1987). Histoire de la justice dans les Mascareignes (in French). Paris: Océan éditions. p. 13. ISBN 2-907064-00-2. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d Moriarty, Cpt. H.A. (1891). Islands in the southern Indian Ocean westward of Longitude 80 degrees east, including Madagascar. London: Great Britain Hydrographic Office. p. 269. OCLC 416495775.
  7. ^ "| Journal de l'île de la Réunion". Clicanoo.re. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
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