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River plume

Kodor river plume

A river plume is a freshened water mass that is formed in the sea as a result of mixing of river discharge and saline seawater.[1] River plumes are formed in coastal sea areas at many regions in the World. River plumes generally ocuppy wide, but shallow sea surface layer bounded by sharp density gradient.

Background

Area of a river plume is 3-5 times greater than its depth, therefore, even small rivers with discharge rates ~1-10 m/s form river plumes with horizontal spatial extents ~10-100 m. Areas of river plumes formed by the largest World rivers are ~100-1000 km². Despite relatively small volume of total freshwater runoff to the World Ocean, river plumes occupy up to 21 % of shelf areas of the World Ocean, i.e., several million square kilometers.[2]

River plumes play an important role in global and regional land-ocean interactions. River discharge provide large fluxes of buoyancy, heat, terrigenous sediments, nutrients, and anthropogenic pollutants to the ocean.[3] River plumes are characterized by strong spatial inhomogeneity and high temporal variability caused by external forcing and mixing processes.[4] Regional features (delta/estuary, enclosed bay/open sea, shoreline, bathymetry, etc.) also significantly influence morphology and behavior of river plumes. River plumes strongly influence many physical, biological, and geochemical processes in the coastal and shelf sea areas including stratification of sea water, coastal currents, carbon and biogeochemical cycles, primary production, seabed morphology, etc.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Horner-Devine; et al. "Mixing and transport in coastal river plumes". Annual Reviews. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  2. ^ Kang; et al. "Areas of the global major river plumes". Springer. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  3. ^ Osadchiev A, Barymova A, Sedakov R, Zhiba R, Dbar R (September 2020). "Spatial Structure, Short-temporal Variability, and Dynamical Features of Small River Plumes as Observed by Aerial Drones: Case Study of the Kodor and Bzyp River Plumes". Remote Sensing. 12 (18). doi:10.3390/rs12183079.
  4. ^ Horner-Devine; et al. "Mixing and transport in coastal river plumes". Annual Reviews. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  5. ^ Horner-Devine; et al. "Mixing and transport in coastal river plumes". Annual Reviews. Retrieved 2021-02-13.

External links


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