Romanization of Wu Chinese

Wu Chinese have three major schools of romanization.

The most popular school, Common Wu pinyin (通用吴语拼音) was developed by local language clubs and local learners. It has two popular schemes, both adhere to International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and similar to each other, 吴语协会拼音 and 吴语学堂拼音. Another popular school, Latin phonetic method (吴语拉丁式注音法, often shorten as French-Wu [法吴]), utilizes the similarities between French and Wu phonetics and thus adheres to both IPA and French orthography.[1][2] The third school adheres to Mandarin pinyin, exemplified by the 2006 Qian Nairong's Shanghainese Pinyin (上海话拼音方案, often shorten as Qian's Pinyin [钱拼]).[3]


dagger Romanization schemes
i denotes 吴语协会拼音
ii denotes 吴语学堂拼音
iii denotes 吴语拉丁式注音法, also known as 法吴
iv denotes Qian Nairong's 上海话拼音方案 in 2006
§ gives example characters correspond to the Shanghainese dialect
IPA† Romanization schemes † Characters §
i ii iii iv
p p b 巴百
ph p 怕捧
b b bh 旁别
m mh 没母
ˀm m 闷美
m 姆亩
f f f 夫反
v v fh 佛犯
ˀv v [4]
t t d 多德
th t 体通
d d dh 地同
n nh, -n 纳努
ˀn ng 囡呢
ȵ[5] ny nh 尼女
ˀȵ[5] n 研妞
l lh 勒路
ˀl l 拎了
ts ts z 子张
tsʰ tsh c 超参
s s s 书三
z z sh 传食
c j 居尖
tɕʰ ch q 曲青
j jh 求极
ɕ sh x 需血
ʑ xh 谢墙
k k g 工各
kh k 苦客
ɡ g gh 共搞
ŋ ng nhg-, -ng 鹅牙
ˀŋ ng 我砑
ŋ̍ ng 五鱼
ɦ gh hh 红合
ɻ -r (er) 而尔
ʔ -k


IPA† Romanization schemes † E.g.
i ii iii iv
i -i, -i-, y-, yh- 西谢
ɿ[5] -y 资处
u -u, -u-, w-, wh- 多坏
y yu, -u,[6] -u-, yhu- 须卷
[5] a (ia, ua) 拉写
o o (o, ong, iong) 沙画
[5] e (e, ue) 海难
ɔ ao (ao, iao) 少表
ɤ ou (ou, iu[7]) 头流
ø oe (uoe, yoe) 看完
ə e (en, un,[7] er) 登而
ã an (ian, uan) 长横
ɑ̃ ang (ang, iang, uang) 刚光
Vowels with glottal stops
ᴀʔ ak (ak, iak, uak) 白脚
əʔ ek (ek, uek) 合活
ok (ok, iok) 角肉
iɪʔ ik 笔吃
yɪʔ yuik 血月


  1. ^ 唐骋华; 孔亮 (2007-08-19). "都市年轻人为传承上海方言走到一起". Youth Daily [青年报] (in Chinese). Shanghai. Archived from the original on 2013-06-29.
  2. ^ "吳語拼音草案" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2010-03-04.
  3. ^ Qian, Nairong (2006-12-06). "首届国际上海方言学术研讨会审定上海话拼音方案". 北大中文论坛 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2021-02-16.
  4. ^ 出现在三个或以上音节的语音词的第一个音节。
  5. ^ a b c d e [ɿ ᴀ ᴇ ȵ] are IPA used exclusively among Sinologists-linguists, not accepted by the general IPA community.
  6. ^ yu开头的韵母与除nl外的声母相拼时省去y, 如qyuoe(“券”)写作quoe
  7. ^ a b iouuen与声母相拼时分别省去oe,作iuun

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