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Sallaans dialect

Sallaans
Native toNetherlands
Language codes
ISO 639-3sdz
Glottologsall1238

Sallaans (Dutch: Sallands) is a collective term for the Dutch Low Saxon dialects of the region Salland, in the eastern Netherlands. A common term used by native speakers for their dialect, which is also used by Low Saxon speakers from other regions for their respective dialects, is plat or simply dialect. Yet another common usage is to refer to the language by the name of the local variety, where for instance Dal(f)sens would be the name for the Sallaans variety spoken in the village of Dalfsen. Sallands is more influenced by the Hollandic dialects than Twents or Achterhoeks. This influence is known as the Hollandse expansie. For example, the word 'house' is hoes in Twente but huus in Salland. The Hollandic dialects of the 17th century still had uu sounds in their vocabulary, and due to the prestige of the Hollandic dialects these dialects influenced Sallaans.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonants in the dialect of Raalte[1]
Labial Alveolar Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d (ɡ)
Fricative voiceless f s χ h
voiced v z ɣ
Trill r
Approximant ʋ l j
  • [ɡ] appears only as an allophone of /k/ before voiced consonants.[2]
  • /ʋ/ occurring before and after back-rounded vowels is pronounced as a labio-velar approximant [w].
  • After long close and close-mid vowels, /r/ surfaces as a diphthongization of the vowel, as in zoer [ˈzuːə̯]. This also happens in compounds: veurkämer [vøːə̯kæːmr̩].[stress needed] It is also often dropped preconsonantally after /ə/.[3]

Vowels

Raalte monophthongs[4]
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close i y u
Close-mid ɪ ʏ øː ə ʊ
Open-mid ɛ ɛː œ œː ɔ ɔː
Open æ æː ɑ ɑː
  • Unlike in Standard Dutch, the long close-mid monophthongs /eː, øː, oː/ are actual monophthongs and not narrow closing diphthongs [ei, øy, ou]. They do not appear before /r/ whenever that consonant occurs before a vowel or at the end of a word, where the open-mid series /ɛː, œː, ɔː/ occurs instead.[5]
  • The schwa /ə/ is often dropped before /n/, resulting in a syllabic nasal homorganic with the preceding consonant. This occurs after most consonants, including nasals themselves: piepen [ˈpiːpm̩], slóffen [ˈslʊfɱ̍], gieten [ˈχiːtn̩], kieken [ˈkikŋ̍], esprungen [əˈspruŋŋ̍], lachen [ˈlɑχɴ̩]. The sequences /əl/ and /ər/ are treated the same, except for the fact that they do not assimilate to the place of articulation of the preceding consonant.[6]
Raalte diphthongs[7]
Front Back
Close ij, iu yi, yu uw
Open ɛi ɪu œy ɔi ʊi ɑu
  • /œy/ is realized as [œi] before vowels and in the word-final position.[8]

Some examples

For eastern Sallaans:

Present tense

Sallaans Dutch English
Ik loop(e) Ik loop I walk
Ie loopt Jij loopt You walk
Hee/hi'j / Zie/zi'j lup(t) Hij / Zij loopt He / she walks
Wie loopt / loop'n Wij lopen We walk
Jullie / Juulu loopt / loop'n Jullie lopen You walk (plural)
Zie loopt / loop'n Zij lopen They walk

Past tense

Sallaans Dutch English
Ik liepe Ik liep I walked
Ie liep'n Jij liep You walked
Hee / Zee liep Hij / Zij liep He / She walked
Wuu-lu liep'n Wij liepen We walked
Jullie / Juu-lu liep'n Jullie liepen You walked (plural)
Zie liep'n Zij liepen They walked

Plurals and diminutives

Sallaans Dutch English
eene komme een kom One bowl
twee komm'n twee kommen Two bowls
Sallaans Dutch English
een kömmegie een kommetje one little bowl
twee kömmegies twee kommetjes two little bowls

References

  1. ^ Spa (2011), pp. 40, 47.
  2. ^ Spa (2011), p. 47.
  3. ^ Spa (2011), pp. 42–43.
  4. ^ Spa (2011), pp. 11–35.
  5. ^ Spa (2011), pp. 19, 21, 23, 42.
  6. ^ Spa (2011).
  7. ^ Spa (2011), pp. 35–39.
  8. ^ Spa (2011), p. 44.

Bibliography

  • Spa, J.J. (2011). De dialecten van centraal-Salland: Raalte, Heino en Lemelerveld.

Further reading

  • Nijen Twilhaar, Jan (1999), "Deventer", in Kruijsen, Joep; van der Sijs, Nicoline (eds.), Honderd Jaar Stadstaal (PDF), Uitgeverij Contact, pp. 59–73

External links


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