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Science and technology studies本文重定向自 Science, technology, and society

Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (both abbreviated STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.

History

Like most interdisciplinary programs, STS emerged from the confluence of a variety of disciplines and disciplinary subfields, all of which had developed an interest—typically, during the 1960s or 1970s—in viewing science and technology as socially embedded enterprises.[1] The key disciplinary components of STS took shape independently, beginning in the 1960s, and developed in isolation from each other well into the 1980s, although Ludwik Fleck's (1935) monograph Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact anticipated many of STS's key themes. In the 1970s Elting E. Morison founded the STS program at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which served as a model. By 2011, 111 STS research centres and academic programs were counted worldwide.[2]

Key themes

  • History of technology, that examines technology in its social and historical context. Starting in the 1960s, some historians questioned technological determinism, a doctrine that can induce public passivity to technologic and scientific "natural" development. At the same time, some historians began to develop similarly contextual approaches to the history of medicine.
  • History and philosophy of science (1960s). After the publication of Thomas Kuhn's well-known The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), which attributed changes in scientific theories to changes in underlying intellectual paradigms, programs were founded at the University of California, Berkeley and elsewhere that brought historians of science and philosophers together in unified programs.
  • Science, technology, and society. In the mid- to late-1960s, student and faculty social movements in the U.S., UK, and European universities helped to launch a range of new interdisciplinary fields (such as women's studies) that were seen to address relevant topics that the traditional curriculum ignored. One such development was the rise of "science, technology, and society" programs, which are also—confusingly—known by the STS acronym. Drawn from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, history, political science, and sociology, scholars in these programs created undergraduate curricula devoted to exploring the issues raised by science and technology. Feminist scholars in this and other emerging STS areas addressed themselves to the exclusion of women from science and engineering.
  • Science, engineering, and public policy studies emerged in the 1970s from the same concerns that motivated the founders of the science, technology, and society movement: A sense that science and technology were developing in ways that were increasingly at odds with the public's best interests.[according to whom?] The science, technology, and society movement tried to humanize those who would make tomorrow's science and technology, but this discipline took a different approach: It would train students with the professional skills needed to become players in science and technology policy. Some programs came to emphasize quantitative methodologies, and most of these were eventually absorbed into systems engineering. Others emphasized sociological and qualitative approaches, and found that their closest kin could be found among scholars in science, technology, and society departments.[citation needed]

During the 1970s and 1980s, leading universities in the US, UK, and Europe began drawing these various components together in new, interdisciplinary programs. For example, in the 1970s, Cornell University developed a new program that united science studies and policy-oriented scholars with historians and philosophers of science and technology. Each of these programs developed unique identities due to variation in the components that were drawn together, as well as their location within the various universities. For example, the University of Virginia's STS program united scholars drawn from a variety of fields (with particular strength in the history of technology); however, the program's teaching responsibilities—it is located within an engineering school and teaches ethics to undergraduate engineering students—means that all of its faculty share a strong interest in engineering ethics.[citation needed]

The "turn to technology" (and beyond)

A decisive moment in the development of STS was the mid-1980s addition of technology studies to the range of interests reflected in science. During that decade, two works appeared en seriatim that signaled what Steve Woolgar was to call the "turn to technology".[3] In a seminal 1984 article, Trevor Pinch and Wiebe Bijker attached the sociology of scientific knowledge to technology by showing how the sociology of technology could proceed along the theoretical and methodological lines established by the sociology of scientific knowledge.[4] This was the intellectual foundation of the field they called the social construction of technology. Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman primed the pump by publishing a collection of articles attesting to the influence of society on technological design (Social Shaping of Technology, 1985).[5]

The "turn to technology" helped to cement an already growing awareness of underlying unity among the various emerging STS programs. More recently, there has been an associated turn to ecology, nature, and materiality in general, whereby the socio-technical and natural/material co-produce each other. This is especially evident in work in STS analyses of biomedicine (such as Carl May and Annemarie Mol) and ecological interventions (such as Bruno Latour, Sheila Jasanoff, Matthias Gross, and S. Lochlann Jain).

Important concepts

STS social construction

Social constructions are human-created ideas, objects, or events created by a series of choices and interactions.[6] These interactions have consequences that change the perception that different groups of people have on these constructs. Some examples of social construction include class, race, money, and citizenship.

The following also alludes to the notion that not everything is set, a circumstance or result could potentially be one way or the other. According to the article "What is Social Construction?" by Laura Flores, "Social construction work is critical of the status quo. Social constructionists about X tend to hold that:

  1. X need not have existed, or need not be at all as it is. X, or X as it is at present, is not determined by the nature of things; it is not inevitable

Very often they go further, and urge that:

  1. X is quite as bad as it is.
  2. We would be much better off if X were done away with, or at least radically transformed."

In the past, there have been viewpoints that were widely regarded as fact until being called to question due to the introduction of new knowledge. Such viewpoints include the past concept of a correlation between intelligence and the nature of a human's ethnicity or race (X may not be at all as it is).[7]

An example of the evolution and interaction of various social constructions within science and technology can be found in the development of both the high-wheel bicycle, or velocipede, and then of the bicycle. The velocipede was widely used in the latter half of the 19th century. In the latter half of the 19th century, a social need was first recognized for a more efficient and rapid means of transportation. Consequently, the velocipede was first developed, which was able to reach higher translational velocities than the smaller non-geared bicycles of the day, by replacing the front wheel with a larger radius wheel. One notable trade-off was a certain decreased stability leading to a greater risk of falling. This trade-off resulted in many riders getting into accidents by losing balance while riding the bicycle or being thrown over the handle bars.

The first "social construction" or progress of the velocipede caused the need for a newer "social construction" to be recognized and developed into a safer bicycle design. Consequently, the velocipede was then developed into what is now commonly known as the "bicycle" to fit within society's newer "social construction," the newer standards of higher vehicle safety. Thus the popularity of the modern geared bicycle design came as a response to the first social construction, the original need for greater speed, which had caused the high-wheel bicycle to be designed in the first place. The popularity of the modern geared bicycle design ultimately ended the widespread use of the velocipede itself, as eventually it was found to best accomplish the social-needs/ social-constructions of both greater speed and of greater safety.[8]

Technoscience

Technoscience is a subset of Science, Technology, and Society studies that focuses on the inseparable connection between science and technology. It states that fields are linked and grow together, and scientific knowledge requires an infrastructure of technology in order to remain stationary or move forward. Both technological development and scientific discovery drive one another towards more advancement. Technoscience excels at shaping human thought and behavior by opening up new possibilities that gradually or quickly come to be perceived as necessities.[9]

Technosocial

"No innovation without representation" is a democratic ideal of ensuring that everyone involved gets a chance to be represented fairly in technological developments.

  • Langdon Winner states that groups and social interests likely to be affected by a particular kind of technological change ought to be represented at an early stage in defining exactly what that technology will be. It is the idea that relevant parties have a say in technological developments and are not left in the dark.[24]
  • Spoken about by Massimiano Bucchi[25]
  • This ideal does not require the public to become experts on the topics of science and engineering, it only asks that the opinions and ideas be heard before making drastic decisions, as talked about by Steven L. Goldman.[26]

Privileged positions of business and science

The privileged positions of business and science refer to the unique authority that persons in these areas hold in economic, political, and technosocial affairs. Businesses have strong decision-making abilities in the function of society, essentially choosing what technological innovations to develop. Scientists and technologists have valuable knowledge, the ability to pursue the technological innovations they want. They proceed largely without public scrutiny and as if they had the consent of those potentially affected by their discoveries and creations.

Legacy thinking

Legacy thinking is defined as an inherited method of thinking imposed from an external source without objection by the individual, because it is already widely accepted by society.

Legacy thinking can impair the ability to drive technology for the betterment of society by blinding people to innovations that do not fit into their accepted model of how society works. By accepting ideas without questioning them, people often see all solutions that contradict these accepted ideas as impossible or impractical. Legacy thinking tends to advantage the wealthy, who have the means to project their ideas on the public. It may be used by the wealthy as a vehicle to drive technology in their favor rather than for the greater good. Examining the role of citizen participation and representation in politics provides an excellent example of legacy thinking in society. The belief that one can spend money freely to gain influence has been popularized, leading to public acceptance of corporate lobbying. As a result, a self-established role in politics has been cemented where the public does not exercise the power ensured to them by the Constitution to the fullest extent. This can become a barrier to political progress as corporations who have the capital to spend have the potential to wield great influence over policy.[27] Legacy thinking, however, keeps the population from acting to change this, despite polls from Harris Interactive that report over 80% of Americans to feel that big business holds too much power in government.[28] Therefore, Americans are beginning to try to steer away from this line of thought, rejecting legacy thinking, and demanding less corporate, and more public, participation in political decision making.

Additionally, an examination of net neutrality functions as a separate example of legacy thinking. Starting with dial-up, the internet has always been viewed as a private luxury good.[citation needed] Internet today is a vital part of modern-day society members. They use it in and out of life every day.[29] Corporations are able to mislabel and greatly overcharge for their internet resources. Since the American public is so dependent upon internet there is little for them to do. Legacy thinking has kept this pattern on track despite growing movements arguing that the internet should be considered a utility. Legacy thinking prevents progress because it was widely accepted by others before us through advertising that the internet is a luxury and not a utility. Due to pressure from grassroots movements the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has redefined the requirements for broadband and internet in general as a utility.[29] Now AT&T and other major internet providers are lobbying against this action and are in-large able to delay the onset of this movement due to legacy thinking's grip on American[specify] culture and politics.

For example, those who cannot overcome the barrier of legacy thinking may not consider the privatization of clean drinking water as an issue.[30] This is partial because access to water has become such a given fact of the matter to them. For a person living in such circumstances, it may be widely accepted to not concern themselves with drinking water because they have not needed to be concerned with it in the past. Additionally, a person living within an area that does not need to worry about their water supply or the sanitation of their water supply is less likely to be concerned with the privatization of water.

This notion can be examined through the thought experiment of "veil of ignorance".[31] Legacy thinking causes people to be particularly ignorant about the implications behind the "you get what you pay for" mentality applied to a life necessity. By utilizing the "veil of ignorance", one can overcome the barrier of legacy thinking as it requires a person to imagine that they are unaware of their own circumstances, allowing them to free themselves from externally imposed thoughts or widely accepted ideas.

Related concepts

  • Technoscience[11] – The perception that science and technology are intertwined and depend on each other.
  • Technosociety[32] – An industrially developed society with a reliance on technology.
  • Technological utopianism – A positive outlook on the effect technology has on social welfare. Includes the perception that technology will one day enable society to reach a utopian state.
  • Technosocial systems[33] – people and technologies that combine to work as heterogeneous but functional wholes.
  • Critical Technical Practice[34] – the practice of technological creation while simultaneously critiquing and maintaining awareness of the inherent biases and value systems which become embedded in those technologies.

Classifications

  • Technological optimism[35] – The opinion that technology has positive effects on society and should be used in order to improve the welfare of people.
  • Technological pessimism[35] – The opinion that technology has negative effects on society and should be discouraged from use.
  • Technological neutrality[33] – "maintains that a given technology has no systematic effects on society: individuals are perceived as ultimately responsible, for better or worse, because technologies are merely tools people use for their own ends."
  • Technological determinism[33] – "maintains that technologies are understood as simply and directly causing particular societal outcomes."
  • Scientism[36] – The belief in the total separation of facts and values.
  • Technological progressivism[36] – technology is a means to an end itself and an inherently positive pursuit.

Academic programs

STS is taught in several countries. According to the STS wiki, STS programs can be found in twenty countries, including 45 programs in the United States, three programs in India, and eleven programs in the UK.[37] STS programs can be found in Canada,[38] Germany,[39] Israel,[40] Malaysia,[41] and Taiwan.[42] Some examples of institutions offering STS programs are Stanford University,[43] Harvard University,[44] the University of Oxford,[45] Mines ParisTech,[46] Bar-Ilan University,[47] and York University.[38]

Professional associations

The field has several professional associations.

Founded in 1975, the Society for Social Studies of Science, initially provided scholarly communication facilities, including a journal (Science, Technology, and Human Values) and annual meetings that were mainly attended by science studies scholars. The society has since grown into the most important professional association of science and technology studies scholars worldwide. The Society for Social Studies of Science members also include government and industry officials concerned with research and development as well as science and technology policy; scientists and engineers who wish to better understand the social embeddedness of their professional practice; and citizens concerned about the impact of science and technology in their lives.[citation needed]

In Europe, the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST) was founded in 1981 to "improve scholarly communication and exchange in the field", "increase the visibility of the subject to policy-makers and to the general public", and "stimulate and support teaching on the subject at all levels".[48] Similarly, the European Inter-University Association on Society, Science and Technology (ESST) researches and studies science and technology in society, in both historical and contemporary perspectives.

In European nation states and language communities, a range of STS associations exist, including in the UK, Spain, Germany, Austria, Turkey. For instance, in 2015, the UK-based Association for Studies in Innovation, Science and Technology (AsSIST-UK) was established, principally to foster stronger integration between the innovation studies and STS fields.[49] In 2019 it had a membership of 350.[50] It holds annual conferences and has built strong links to policy practitioners in Westminster.[51]

In Asia several STS associations exist. In Japan, the Japanese Society for Science and Technology Studies (JSSTS)[52] was founded in 2001. The Asia Pacific Science Technology & Society Network (APSTSN)[53] primarily has members from Australasia, Southeast and East Asia and Oceania.

In Latin America ESOCITE (Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología) is the biggest association of Science and Technology studies. The study of STS (CyT in Spanish, CTS in Portuguese) here was shaped by authors like Amílcar Herrera [es] and Jorge Sabato and Oscar Varsavsky [es] in Argentina, José Leite Lopes in Brazil, Miguel Wionczek in Mexico, Francisco Sagasti in Peru, Máximo Halty Carrere in Uruguay and Marcel Roche in Venezuela.[54]

Founded in 1958, the Society for the History of Technology initially attracted members from the history profession who had interests in the contextual history of technology. After the "turn to technology" in the mid-1980s, the society's well-regarded journal (Technology and Culture) and its annual meetings began to attract considerable interest from non-historians with technology studies interests.

Less identified with STS, but also of importance to many STS scholars, are the History of Science Society, the Philosophy of Science Association, and the American Association for the History of Medicine.

Additionally, within the US there are significant STS-oriented special interest groups within major disciplinary associations, including the American Anthropological Association, the American Political Science Association, the National Women's Studies Association, and the American Sociological Association.

Journals

Notable peer-reviewed journals in STS include:

  • Social Studies of Science
  • Science, Technology & Human Values
  • Science & Technology Studies[55]
  • Engaging Science, Technology, and Society
  • Catalyst: Feminism, Theory, Technoscience
  • Technology in Society; Research Policy
  • Minerva: A Journal of Science, Learning and Policy
  • Science, Technology and Society
  • Science as Culture
  • Research Policy[56]
  • Revue d'Anthropologie des Connaissances[57]
  • IEEE Technology and Society Magazine[58]
  • Technology and Culture
  • Science and Public Policy
  • Tapuya: Latin American Science, Technology and Society[59]

Student journals in STS include:

  • Intersect: the Stanford Journal of Science, Technology, and Society at Stanford
  • DEMESCI: International Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science
  • The Science In Society Review: A Production of the Triple Helix at Cornell
  • Synthesis: An Undergraduate Journal of the History of Science at Harvard

Notable scholars

See also

References

  1. ^ Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P., Pinch, T. and Douglas, D. G., The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2012.
  2. ^ The STS Wiki.
  3. ^ Woolgar, Steve (January 1991). "The turn to technology in social studies of science". Science, Technology, & Human Values. 16 (1): 20–50. doi:10.1177/016224399101600102. JSTOR 690038.
  4. ^ Pinch, Trevor J.; Bijker, Wiebe E. (August 1984). "The social construction of facts and artefacts: or how the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other". Social Studies of Science. 14 (3): 399–441. doi:10.1177/030631284014003004. JSTOR 285355. See also: Bijker, Wiebe E.; Hughes, Thomas Parke; Pinch, Trevor J., eds. (2012) [1987]. The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology (Anniversary ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262517607. OCLC 759491749.
  5. ^ MacKenzie, Donald A.; Wajcman, Judy, eds. (1999) [1985]. The social shaping of technology (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0335199143. OCLC 39713267.
  6. ^ Woodhouse, Edward (2014). Science Technology and Society (1st ed.). San Diego: University Readers. p. 255.
  7. ^ Hacking, Ian (1999). The Social Construction of What? (1st ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England: President and Fellows of Harvard University. p. 6. ISBN 978-0674004122.
  8. ^ Bijker, Wiebe (1993). The Social Construction of Technological System (1st ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 28–45. ISBN 978-0-262-52137-6.
  9. ^ Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View (London: Macmillan, 1974)
  10. ^ Goldman, S. (1992). No Innovation Without Representation (pp. 148-160). Troy, New York: Rensselaer.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Woodhouse, E. (2013). In The Future of Technological Civilization (Revised ed., pp. 1-258).
  12. ^ Winner, L. (1993). Artifacts/Ideas and Political Culture (pp. 283-292). Troy, New York: Rensselaer.
  13. ^ Dowie, M. (1977, October 1). Pinto Madness. Retrieved February 4, 2015
  14. ^ a b Bohman, James (1998). "The Coming of Age of Deliberative Democracy". The Journal of Political Philosophy. 6 (4): 400–425. doi:10.1111/1467-9760.00061.
  15. ^ a b Chilvers, Jason (March 2008). "Deliberating Competence, Theoretical and Practitioners Perspectives on Effective Participatory Appraisal Practice". Science, Technology, & Human Values. 33 (2). doi:10.1177/01622439073075941. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  16. ^ Ryfe, David M. (March 4, 2005). "Does Deliberative Democracy Work?". Annual Review of Political Science. 8: 63–64. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.8.032904.154633.
  17. ^ Jasanoff, Sheila (2003). "Technologies of Humility: Citizen Participation in Governing Science". Minerva. 41 (3): 223–244. doi:10.1023/A:1025557512320.
  18. ^ Ackerman, Bruce; Fishkin, James S. (2004-03-10). "Deliberation Day". Center for American Progress. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  19. ^ Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons" (PDF). www.sciencemag.org. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  20. ^ Davidow, Bill (2012-05-18). "The Tragedy of the Internet Commons". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  21. ^ Kahn, Matthew E. "Environmental and Urban Economics". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  22. ^ Eisenstadt, Shmuel (Winter 2000). "Multiple Modernities". Dædalus.
  23. ^ Feenberg, Andrew (1995). Alternative Modernity : The Technical Turn in Philosophy and Social Theory. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520089860.
  24. ^ Winner, Langdon. "Artifact/Ideas and Political Culture." Technology and the Future (1993): 283-92. Print.
  25. ^ Bucchi, Massimiano. "No Innovation without Representation (A Parliament of Things for the New Technical Democracies)." http://www.fondazionebassetti.org/. 20 Dec. 2003. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
  26. ^ Goldman, Steven L. "No Innovation Without Representation: Technological Action in a Democratic Society." New Worlds, New Technologies, New Issues (1992): 148-60. Print.
  27. ^ , Allison, Bill, and Sarah Harkins. "Fixed Fortunes: Biggest Corporate Political Interests Spend Billions, Get Trillions." Sunlight Foundation Blog. Sunlight Foundation, 17 Nov. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
  28. ^ , Corso, Regina, SVP. "PACs, Big Companies, Lobbyists, and Banks and Financial Institutions Seen by Strong Majorities as Having Too Much Power and Influence in DC." Harris Interactive: Harris Polls. Harris Interactive, 29 May 2012. Web. 21 Apr. 2015
  29. ^ a b "Net Neutrality: A Free and Open Internet." The White House. The White House, 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
  30. ^ Flow. Oscilloscope Pictures, 2008. DVD.
  31. ^ Woodhouse, Edward. Science Technology and Society. Spring 2015 ed. N.p.: U Readers, 2014. Print.
  32. ^ Technosociety dictionary definition | technosociety defined. (n.d.). Retrieved March 20, 2015, from __http://www.yourdictionary.com/technosociety__
  33. ^ a b c "Design by Society: Science and Technology Studies and the Social Shaping of Design", Edward Woodhouse and Jason W. Patton, Design Issues, Volume 20, Number 3 Summer 2004.
  34. ^ "Toward a Critical Technical Practice: Lessons Learned in Trying to Reform AI", Philip E. Agre, in Bridging the Great Divide: Social Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work, Geoff Bowker, Les Gasser, Leigh Star, and Bill Turner, eds, Erlbaum, 1997
  35. ^ a b Hochschild, J., Crabill, A., & Sen, M. (2012, December 1). Technology Optimism or Pessimism: How Trust in Science Shapes Policy Attitudes toward Genomic Science. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/msen/files/hochschild_crabill_sen.pdf
  36. ^ a b Kleinman, D. (2005). Science is Political/Technology is Social: Concerns, Concepts, and Questions. Maryland: Blackwell.
  37. ^ "Worldwide directory of STS programs - stswiki". www.stswiki.org. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  38. ^ a b "Graduate Program in Science & Technology Studies". sts.gradstudies.yorku.ca. York University. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  39. ^ "Technical University of Munich".
  40. ^ "STS programs: Israel - stswiki". www.stswiki.org. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  41. ^ "STS programs: Malaysia - stswiki". www.stswiki.org. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  42. ^ "STS programs: Taiwan - stswiki". www.stswiki.org. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  43. ^ "Stanford | The Program in Science, Technology, and Society".
  44. ^ "Program on Science, Technology and Society at Harvard". sts.hks.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  45. ^ "Home | Institute for Science Innovation and Society". www.insis.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  46. ^ "Center for the Sociology of Innovation (CSI) / Centre de Sociologie de l'Innovation (CSI)". csi.mines-paristech.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  47. ^ "STS@BIU - Science, Technology and Society, Bar-Ilan University, Israel". STS@BIU - Science, Technology and Society, Bar-Ilan University, Israel. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  48. ^ "About EASST". easst.net. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  49. ^ "Background – AsSIST-UK". assist-uk.com. 29 March 2016. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  50. ^ "Members – AsSIST-UK". assist-uk.com. 29 March 2016. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  51. ^ Webster, Andrew (2018). "SATSU – The Science and Technology Studies Unit: 30 years in the making". EASST Review. European Association for the Study of Science and Technology. 37 (2). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  52. ^ Japanese Society for Science and Technology Studies
  53. ^ Asia Pacific Science Technology & Society Network
  54. ^ Kreimer, P. (2007). Estudios sociales de la ciencia y la tecnología en América Latina: ¿para qué?, ¿ para quién? Redes, 13(26), 55–64. Retrieved from http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/907/90702603.pdf
  55. ^ "Science & Technology Studies". sciencetechnologystudies.journal.fi. Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  56. ^ Research Policy.
  57. ^ "Revue d'anthropologie des connaissances". Société d'anthropologie des connaissances.
  58. ^ "Technology and Society Magazine - IEEE Technology and Society". IEEE Technology and Society. Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  59. ^ "Tapuya: Latin American Science, Technology and Society Homepage". Retrieved 2018-07-05.

Further reading

  • Bauchspies, Wenda; Croissant, Jennifer; Restivo, Sal (2005). Science, Technology, and Society: A Sociological Approach. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780631232100.
  • Bijker, Wiebe; Hughes, Thomas; Pinch, Trevor, eds. (1987). The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262022620.
  • Felt, Ulrike; Fouché, Rayvon; Miller, Clark A.; Smith-Doerr, Laruel, eds. (2017). The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies (4th ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262035682.
  • Fuller, Steve (1993). Philosophy, Rhetoric, and the End of Knowledge: The Coming of Science and Technology Studies. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. (2nd edition, with James H. Collier, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004)
  • Hess, David J. (1997). Science Studies: An Advanced Introduction. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 9780814735640.
  • Jasanoff, Sheila; Markle, Gerald; Petersen, James; Pinch, Trevor, eds. (1994). Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 978-0803940215.
  • Kuhn, Thomas (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Latour, Bruno (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Restivo, Sal, ed. (2005). Science, Technology, and Society: An Encyclopedia. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195141931.

External links

Journals


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