Sinological extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet

A number of additional characters are used with the International Phonetic Alphabet by linguists documenting the languages of China and neighboring countries, especially linguists based in China.


Primary vowels
  • = central [ä]
  • = mid [e̞]
Fricative vowels

These letters, sometimes mistakenly called "apical",[1][2] derive from Karlgren, from a turned ⟨ι⟩.

  • ɿ = [ɹ̩]
  • ʅ = [ɻ̩]
  • ʮ = [ɹ̩ʷ]
  • ʯ = [ɻ̩ʷ]
Alveolo-palatal consonants
  • ȡ = [d̠ʲ]
  • ȴ = [l̠ʲ]
  • ȵ = [n̠ʲ]
  • ȶ = [t̠ʲ]


  1. ^ Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (June 2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  2. ^ Lee-Kim, Sang-Im (December 2014). "Revisiting Mandarin 'apical vowels': An articulatory and acoustic study". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 44 (3): 261–282. doi:10.1017/S0025100314000267.

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