wanweipedia

State religion

Former state churches in British North America

Protestant colonies
  • The colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven, and New Hampshire were founded by Puritan Calvinist Protestants, and had Congregational established churches.
  • The colonies of New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia maintained the Church of England as the established church.
  • The Colony of Maryland was founded by a charter granted in 1632 to George Calvert, secretary of state to Charles I, and his son Cecil, both recent converts to Roman Catholicism. Under their leadership, many English Catholic gentry families settled in Maryland. However, the colonial government was officially neutral in religious affairs, granting toleration to all Christian groups and enjoining them to avoid actions which antagonized the others. On several occasions, low-church dissenters led insurrections which temporarily overthrew the Calvert rule. In 1689, when William and Mary came to the English throne, they acceded to demands to revoke the original royal charter. In 1701, the Church of England was proclaimed, and in the course of the 18th century Maryland Catholics were first barred from public office, then disenfranchised, although not all of the laws passed against them (notably laws restricting property rights and imposing penalties for sending children to be educated in foreign Catholic institutions) were enforced, and some Catholics even continued to hold public office.
  • When Spanish Florida was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, the British divided Florida into two colonies, East and West Florida, which both continued a policy of toleration for the Catholic residents, but established the Church of England as the state church.
  • When New France was transferred to Great Britain in 1763, the Roman Catholic Church remained under toleration, but Huguenots were allowed entrance where they had formerly been banned from settlement by Parisian authorities.
Colonies with no established church
  • The Province of Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers, but the colony never had an established church.
  • The Province of New Jersey, without official religion, had a significant Quaker lobby, but Calvinists of all types also had a presence.
  • Delaware Colony had no established church, but was contested between Catholics and Quakers.
  • The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, founded by religious dissenters forced to flee the Massachusetts Bay colony, is widely regarded as the first polity to grant religious freedom to all its citizens, although Catholics were barred intermittently. Baptists, Seekers/Quakers and Jews made this colony their home. The King Charles Charter of 1663 guaranteed "full liberty in religious concernments".
Tabular summary
Colony Denomination Disestablished[n 1]
Connecticut Congregational 1818[179]
Georgia Church of England 1789[n 2]
Maryland Church of England 1776
Massachusetts Congregational 1834 (parish church system)[n 3]
New Brunswick Church of England
New Hampshire Congregational 1877[n 4]
Newfoundland Church of England
North Carolina Church of England 1776[n 5]
Nova Scotia Church of England 1850
Prince Edward Island Church of England
South Carolina Church of England 1790
Canada West Church of England 1854
West Florida Church of England[n 6] 1783[n 7]
East Florida Church of England[n 6] 1783[n 7]
Virginia Church of England 1786[n 8]
West Indies Church of England 1868 (Barbados, not until 1969)
  1. ^ In several colonies, the establishment ceased to exist in practice at the Revolution, about 1776;[178] this is the date of permanent legal abolition.
  2. ^ In 1789 the Georgia Constitution was amended as follows: "Article IV. Section 10. No person within this state shall, upon any pretence, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping God in any manner agreeable to his own conscience, nor be compelled to attend any place of worship contrary to his own faith and judgment; nor shall he ever be obliged to pay tithes, taxes, or any other rate, for the building or repairing any place of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry, contrary to what he believes to be right, or hath voluntarily engaged. To do. No one religious society shall ever be established in this state, in preference to another; nor shall any person be denied the enjoyment of any civil right merely on account of his religious principles."
  3. ^ From 1780 to 1824, Massachusetts residents were all required to attend a parish church, the denomination of which was chosen by majority vote of town residents, but in effect this de facto established Congregationalism as the state religion. For details see Constitution of Massachusetts.
  4. ^ Until 1877 the New Hampshire Constitution required members of the State legislature to be of the Protestant religion. Until 1968 the Constitution allowed for state funding of Protestant classrooms but not Catholic classrooms.
  5. ^ The North Carolina Constitution of 1776 disestablished the Anglican church, but until 1835 the NC Constitution allowed only Protestants to hold public office. From 1835–1876 it allowed only Christians (including Catholics) to hold public office. Article VI, Section8 of the current NC Constitution forbids "any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God" from holding public office. Such clauses were held by the United States Supreme Court to be unenforceable in the 1961 case of Torcaso v. Watkins, when the court ruled unanimously that the First and Fourteenth Amendment protections prohibiting federal religious tests also applied to the states under the doctrine of incorporation.
  6. ^ a b Religious tolerance for Catholics with an established Church of England was the policy in the former Spanish Colonies of East and West Florida while under British rule.
  7. ^ a b In 1783 Peace of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War, the British ceded both East and West Florida back to Spain (see Spanish Florida).
  8. ^ Tithes for the support of the Anglican Church in Virginia were suspended in 1776, and never restored. 1786 is the date of the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, which prohibited any coercion to support any religious body.

Non-British colonies

These areas were disestablished and dissolved, yet their presences were tolerated by the English and later British colonial governments, as Foreign Protestants, whose communities were expected to observe their own ways without causing controversy or conflict for the prevalent colonists. After the Revolution, their ethno-religious backgrounds were chiefly sought as the most compatible non-British Isles immigrants.

State of Deseret

The State of Deseret was a provisional state of the United States, proposed in 1849, by Mormon settlers in Salt Lake City. The provisional state existed for slightly over two years, but attempts to gain recognition by the United States government floundered for various reasons. The Utah Territory which was then founded was under Mormon control, and repeated attempts to gain statehood met resistance, in part due to concerns that the principle of separation of church and state conflicted with the practice of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints placing their highest value on "following counsel" in virtually all matters relating to their church-centered lives. The state of Utah was eventually admitted to the union on 4January 1896, after the various issues had been resolved.[180]

Established churches and former state churches

Country Church Denomination Disestablished
Anhalt Evangelical State Church of Anhalt united Protestant 1918
Armenia Armenian Apostolic Church Oriental Orthodox 1921
Austria Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1918
Baden Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1918
United Evangelical Protestant State Church of Baden united Protestant 1918
Bavaria Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1918
Protestant State Church in the Kingdom of Bavaria right of the Rhine Lutheran and Reformed 1918
United Protestant Evangelical Christian Church of the Palatinate united Protestant 1918
Barbados Church of England Anglican 1969
Bolivia Roman Catholic Church Catholic 2009
Brazil[note 3] Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1890
Brunswick Evangelical Lutheran State Church in Brunswick Lutheran 1918
Bulgaria Bulgarian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1946
Chile Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1925
Colombia Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1936[181]
Cuba Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1902
Cyprus Cypriot Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1977 with the death of the Ethnarch Makarios III
Czechoslovakia Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1920
Denmark Church of Denmark Lutheran no
England Church of England Anglican no
Ethiopia Ethiopian Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodox 1974
Faroe Islands Church of the Faroe Islands Lutheran no, elevated from a diocese of the Church of Denmark in 2007 (the two remain in close cooperation)
Finland Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Lutheran ?
Finnish Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox ?
France Cult of Reason N/A 1794 (established 1793)
Cult of the Supreme Being N/A 1794, officially banned in 1802
Roman Catholic Church[note 4] Catholic 1830
Georgia Georgian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1921
Greece Greek Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox[61] The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the "prevailing religion" in Greece.[61] However, this provision does not give official status to the Church of Greece, while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practiced freely.[64]
Greenland Church of Denmark Lutheran no, under discussion to be elevated from The Diocese of Greenland in the Church of Denmark to a state church for Greenland, along‐the‐lines the Faroese Church took in 2007
Guatemala Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1871
Haiti Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1987
Hawaii Church of Hawaii Anglican 1893
Hesse Evangelical Church in Hesse united Protestant 1918
Hungary[note 5] Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1946
Iceland Lutheran Evangelical Church Lutheran no
Ireland[note 6] Church of Ireland Anglican 1871
Italy Roman Catholic Church Catholic 18 February 1984 (into force 25 April 1985[188])
Liechtenstein Roman Catholic Church[45] Catholic no
Lippe Church of Lippe Reformed 1918
Lithuania Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1940
Lübeck Evangelical Lutheran Church in the State of Lübeck Lutheran 1918
Luxembourg Roman Catholic Church Catholic no official state church[189]
Malta Roman Catholic Church Catholic no
Mecklenburg-Schwerin Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Lutheran 1918
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Mecklenburg-Strelitz State Church Lutheran 1918
Mexico Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1857 (reestablished between 1864 and 1867)
Monaco Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1999
Mongolia Tibetan Buddhism n/a 1926
Netherlands Dutch Reformed Church Reformed 1795
North Macedonia Macedonian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1921
Norway Church of Norway Lutheran As of 2012 the Constitution of Norway no longer names Lutheranism as the official religion of the state and in 2017 the church became an independent legal entity,[172][170][190] but article 16 says that "The Church of Norway [...] will remain the National Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State."[171] As of 1January 2017 the Church of Norway is a legal entity independent of the state.[172][173]
Oldenburg Evangelical Lutheran Church of Oldenburg Lutheran 1918
Panama Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1904
Paraguay Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1992[191]
Philippines[note 7] Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1898
Poland[note 8] Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1947
Portugal Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1910
Prussia
pre 1866 provinces
Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces with nine ecclesiastical provinces united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Hanover
Evangelical Reformed State Church of the Province of Hanover Reformed 1918
Prussia
Province of Hanover
Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover Lutheran 1918
Prussia
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical State Church of Frankfurt upon Main united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical Church of Electoral Hesse united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical State Church in Nassau united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Prov. of Schleswig-Holstein
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schleswig-Holstein Lutheran 1918
Quebec Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1960
Romania Romanian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1947
Russia Russian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1917
Thuringia church bodies in principalities which merged in Thuringia in 1920 Lutheran 1918
Saxony Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Saxony Lutheran 1918
Schaumburg-Lippe Evangelical State Church of Schaumburg-Lippe Lutheran 1918
Scotland[192] Church of Scotland Presbyterian Remains the national church; state control disclaimed since 1638. Formally recognised as not an established church by the Church of Scotland Act 1921.
Serbia Serbian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1920
Spain Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1978
Sweden Church of Sweden Lutheran 2000
Switzerland separate Cantonal Churches («Landeskirchen») Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Catholic during the 20th century
Turkey Sunni Islam 1928 (The caliphate held by Ottoman dynasty was abolished on 3 March 1924. Sunni Islam was the official religion of the state until 10 April 1928.[193])
Tuvalu Church of Tuvalu Reformed no
Uruguay Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1918 (into effect in 1919)
United States[note 9] none since 1776, which was made explicit in the Bill of Rights in 1792 none n/a; some state legislatures required all citizens in those states to be members of a church, and some had official churches, such as Congregationalism in some New England states such as Massachusetts. This eventually ended in 1833 when Massachusetts was the last state to disestablish its church.
Waldeck Evangelical State Church of Waldeck and Pyrmont united Protestants 1918
Wales[note 10] Church of England Anglican 1920
Württemberg Evangelical State Church in Württemberg Lutheran 1918

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bhutan,[1] Mauritania,[2] Western Sahara (via Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[3] and Morocco,[4] which divide control), Morocco,[4] Tunisia,[5] Egypt,[6] Jordan,[7] Iraq,[8] Afghanistan,[9] Pakistan,[10] Bangladesh,[11] United Arab Emirates,[12] Oman,[13] Yemen,[14] Maldives,[15] Iran,[16] Algeria,[17] Saudi Arabia,[18] Somalia,[19] Malaysia,[20] Brunei,[21] Greece,[22] Denmark,[23] Norway,[24] Costa Rica,[25] Zambia.[26] See also here.
  2. ^ The Constitution also states that "Any matter relating to divorce, judicial separation or restitution of conjugal rights or to family relations of the members of the Greek-Orthodox Church, shall be cognizable by family courts each of which is composed: For a divorce trial, of three judges, one of which is a lawyer ecclesiastical officer appointed by the Greek Orthodox Church and presides over the Court and the other two of high professional and moral standard belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church are appointed by the Supreme Court among lawyers. If no ecclesiastical officer is appointed as above, the Supreme Court appoints the President of the Court as well."[66]
  3. ^ Brazilian Laws – the Federal Constitution – The Organization of State. V-brazil.com. Retrieved 5 May 2012. Brazil had Roman Catholicism as the state religion from the country's independence, in 1822, until the fall of the Brazilian Empire. The new Republican government passed, in 1890, Decree 119-A "Decreto 119-A". Prohibits federal and state authorities to intervene on religion, granting freedom of religion. (still in force), instituting the separation of church and state for the first time in Brazilian law. Positivist thinker Demétrio Nunes Ribeiro urged the new government to adopt this stance. The 1891 Constitution, the first under the Republican system of government, abolished privileges for any specific religion, reaffirming the separation of church and state. This has been the case ever since the 1988 Constitution of Brazil, currently in force, does so in its Nineteenth Article. The Preamble to the Constitution does refer to "God's protection" over the document's promulgation, but this is not legally taken as endorsement of belief in any deity.
  4. ^ In France the Concordat of 1801 made the Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran churches and Judaism state-sponsored religions until 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State.
  5. ^ In Hungary the constitutional laws of 1848 declared five established churches on equal status: the Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox and Unitarian Church. In 1868 the law was ratified again after the Ausgleich. In 1895 Judaism was also recognized as the sixth established church. In 1948 every distinction between the different denominations were abolished.[182][183]
  6. ^ In the Kingdom of Ireland the Church of Ireland was established in the Reformation.[184] The Act of Union 1800 created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the United Church of England and Ireland established outside Scotland. The Irish Church Act 1869 demerged and disestablished the Church of Ireland,[184] and the island was partitioned in 1922. The Republic of Ireland's 1937 constitution prohibits an established religion.[185] Originally, it recognized the "special position" of the Roman Catholic Church "as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens", and recognized "the Church of Ireland, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Methodist Church in Ireland, the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution".[186] These provisions were deleted in 1973.[187]
  7. ^ The Philippines was among several possessions ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898; religious freedom was subsequently guaranteed in the archipelago. This was codified in the Philippine Organic Act (1902), section 5: "...That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed." A similarly-worded provision still exists in the present Constitution. Catholicism remains the predominant religion, wielding considerable political and cultural influence.
  8. ^ Article 25 of the constitution states: "1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights. 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction". Article 114 of the Polish March Constitution of 1921 declared the Roman Catholic Church to hold "the principal position among religious denominations equal before the law" (in reference to the idea of first among equals). The article was continued in force by article 81 of the April Constitution of 1935. The Soviet-backed PKWN Manifesto of 1944 reintroduced the March Constitution, which remained in force until it was replaced by the Small Constitution of 1947.
  9. ^ The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution explicitly forbids the federal government from enacting any law respecting a religious establishment, and thus forbids either designating an official church for the United States, or interfering with State and local official churches—which were common when the First Amendment was enacted. It did not prevent state governments from establishing official churches. Connecticut continued to do so until it replaced its colonial Charter with the Connecticut Constitution of 1818; Massachusetts retained an establishment of religion in general until 1833.[194] As of 2010, ArticleIII of the Massachusetts constitution still provided, "...the legislature shall, from time to time, authorize and require, the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of the public worship of God, and for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality, in all cases where such provision shall not be made voluntarily."[195]The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, makes no mention of religious establishment, but forbids the states to "abridge the privileges or immunities" of U.S. citizens, or to "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law". In the 1947 case of Everson v. Board of Education, the United States Supreme Court held that this later provision incorporates the First Amendment's Establishment Clause as applying to the States, and thereby prohibits state and local religious establishments. The exact boundaries of this prohibition are still disputed, and are a frequent source of cases before the U.S. Supreme Court—especially as the Court must now balance, on a state level, the First Amendment prohibitions on government establishment of official religions with the First Amendment prohibitions on government interference with the free exercise of religion. See school prayer for such a controversy in contemporary American politics.All current State constitutions do mention a Creator, but include guarantees of religious liberty parallel to the First Amendment. The constitutions of eight states (Arkansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas) also contain clauses that prohibit atheists from holding public office.[196][197] However, these clauses were held by the U.S. Supreme Court to be unenforceable in the 1961 case of Torcaso v. Watkins, where the court ruled unanimously that such clauses constituted a religious test incompatible with the religious test prohibition in Article6 Section3 of the United States Constitution.The Church of Hawaii was the state church of Hawaii from 1862–1893.
  10. ^ The Church in Wales was split from the Church of England in 1920, by Welsh Church Act 1914; at the same time becoming disestablished.

References

  1. ^ https://www.academia.edu/4109874/THE_INSCRUTABLE_GUARDIAN_OF_THUNDER_AND_SILENCE_The_Dragon_druk_in_Himalayan_Symbology
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  3. ^ Toby Shelley. Endgame in the Western Sahara: What Future for Africa's Last Colony?. Zed Books; 2004. ISBN 978-1-84277-341-3. p. 174.
  4. ^ a b "Morocco". CIA World Factbook.
  5. ^ "Tunisia". CIA World Factbook.
  6. ^ The 2012 Constitution of Egypt, Translated by Nivien Saleh, with Index (Article 2)
  7. ^ "Jordan". CIA World Factbook.
  8. ^ "Iraq". CIA World Factbook.
  9. ^ The Constitution of Afghanistan (Chapter one, Article two), afghan-web.com
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  11. ^ "Bangladesh". CIA World Factbook.
  12. ^ "United Arab Emirates". CIA World Factbook.
  13. ^ "Oman". CIA World Factbook.
  14. ^ "Yemen". CIA World Factbook.
  15. ^ "Maldives". CIA World Factbook.
  16. ^ Iran - Constitution (Article 12), unibe.ch, "The official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Ja'fari school, ..."
  17. ^ "Algeria". CIA World Factbook.
  18. ^ The Basic Law of Governance (Chapter one, Article one), saudiembassy.net, "The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a sovereign Arab Islamic State. Its religion is Islam. Its constitution is Almighty God's Book, The Holy Qur'an, and the Sunna (Traditions) of the Prophet (PBUH). Arabic is the language of the Kingdom. The City of Riyadh is the capital."
  19. ^ "Somalia". CIA World Factbook.
  20. ^ Federal Constitution, agc.gov.my
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  23. ^ "Denmark". CIA World Factbook.
  24. ^ "Norway". CIA World Factbook.
  25. ^ Title VI, Article 75 of The Constitution of Costa Rica, costaricalaw.com.
  26. ^ "Zambia's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2009" (PDF). CIA World Factbook.
  27. ^ The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. p. 268 by Cambridge University Press, Gale Group, C.W. Dugmore
  28. ^ The headship was administrative and jurisdictional but did not include the potestas ordinis (the right to preach, ordain, administer the sacraments and rites of the Church which were reserved to the clergy). Bray, Gerald. Documents of the English Reformation James Clarke & Cº (1994), p. 114
  29. ^ Neill, Stephen. Anglicanism Penguin (1960), p. 61
  30. ^ The concerned religious communities are the dioceses of Metz and of Strasbourg, the Lutheran EPCAAL and the Reformed EPRAL and the three Israelite consistories in Colmar, Metz and Strasbourg.
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    Article 3, Spiritual Heritage
    1. Buddhism is the spiritual heritage of Bhutan, which promotes the principles and values of peace, non-violence, compassion and tolerance.
    2. The Druk Gyalpo is the protector of all religions in Bhutan.
    3. It shall be the responsibility of religious institutions and personalities to promote the spiritual heritage of the country while also ensuring that religion remains separate from politics in Bhutan. Religious institutions and personalities shall remain above politics.
    4. The Druk Gyalpo shall, on the recommendation of the Five Lopons, appoint a learned and respected monk ordained in accordance with the Druk-lu, blessed with the nine qualities of a spiritual master and accomplished in ked-dzog, as the Je Khenpo.
    5. His Holiness the Je Khenpo shall, on the recommendation of the Dratshang Lhentshog, appoint monks blessed with the nine qualities of a spiritual master and accomplished in ked-dzog as the Five Lopons.
    6. The members of the Dratshang Lhentshog shall comprise:
      (a) The Je Khenpo as Chairman;
      (b) The Five Lopons of the Zhung Dratshang; and
      (c) The Secretary of the Dratshang Lhentshog who is a civil servant.
    7. The Zhung Dratshang and Rabdeys shall continue to receive adequate funds and other facilities from the State."Bhutan's Constitution of 2008" (PDF). constituteproject.org/. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  33. ^ "Constitution of Cambodia". cambodia.org. Retrieved 13 April 2011. (Article 43).
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    "The State should support and protect Buddhism. In supporting and protecting Buddhism, [...] the State should promote and support education and dissemination of dharmic principles of Theravada Buddhism [...], and shall have measures and mechanisms to prevent Buddhism from being undermined in any form. The State should also encourage Buddhists to participate in implementing such measures or mechanisms.""Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand" (PDF). constitutionnet.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  37. ^ "Myanmar's Constitution of 2008" (PDF). constituteproject.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  38. ^ "Lao People's Democratic Republic's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2003" (PDF). constituteproject.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017. Article 9: The State respects and protects all lawful activities of Buddhists and of followers of other religions, [and] mobilises and encourages Buddhist monks and novices as well as the priests of other religions to participate in activities that are beneficial to the country and people.
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  58. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Peru" (PDF). Within an independent and autonomous system, the State recognizes the Catholic Church as an important element in the historical, cultural, and moral formation of Peru and lends it its cooperation. The State respects other denominations and may establish forms of collaboration with them.
  59. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". 2 April 1997. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the Council of Ministers.
  60. ^ "Spanish Constitution". Sections 14, 16 & 27.3,Constitutionof29 December 1978 (PDF). Retrieved 5 March 2018. No religion shall have a state character. The public authorities shall take into account the religious beliefs of Spanish society and shall consequently maintain appropriate cooperation relations with the Catholic Church and other confessions.
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  69. ^ Constitution of Georgia Article 9(1&2) and 73(1a1)
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Further reading

  • Rowlands, John Henry Lewis (1989). Church, State, and Society, 1827–1845: the Attitudes of John Keble, Richard Hurrell Froude, and John Henry Newman. Worthing, Eng.: P. Smith [of] Churchman Publishing; Folkestone, Eng.: distr.... by Bailey Book Distribution. ISBN 1850931321

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