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Sulfur

Sulfur, 16S
Sulfur-sample.jpg
Sulfur
Alternative namesulphur (British spelling)
Appearancelemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(S)[32.05932.076] conventional: 32.06
Sulfur in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
O

S

Se
phosphorussulfurchlorine
Atomic number (Z)16
Groupgroup 16 (chalcogens)
Periodperiod 3
Blockp-block
Element category  Reactive nonmetal
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electrons per shell2, 8, 6
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point388.36 K ​(115.21 °C, ​239.38 °F)
Boiling point717.8 K ​(444.6 °C, ​832.3 °F)
Density (near r.t.)alpha: 2.07 g/cm3
beta: 1.96 g/cm3
gamma: 1.92 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.819 g/cm3
Critical point1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat of fusionmono: 1.727 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporizationmono: 45 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity22.75 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 375 408 449 508 591 717
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a strongly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.58
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 999.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2252 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3357 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius105±3 pm
Van der Waals radius180 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of sulfur
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for sulfur
Thermal conductivity0.205 W/(m·K) (amorphous)
Electrical resistivity2×1015  Ω·m (at 20 °C) (amorphous)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[1]
Magnetic susceptibility(α) −15.5·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[2]
Bulk modulus7.7 GPa
Mohs hardness2.0
CAS Number7704-34-9
History
DiscoveryChinese[3] (before 2000 BCE)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier (1777)
Main isotopes of sulfur
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
32S 94.99% stable
33S 0.75% stable
34S 4.25% stable
35S trace 87.37 d β 35Cl
36S 0.01% stable
Category Category: Sulfur
Periodic table (Large cells)

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