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Ta-Arawakan languages

Ta-Arawakan
Caribbean
Geographic
distribution
Caribbean and Central America (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast)
Linguistic classificationArawakan
  • Northern
    • (Caribbean)
      • Ta-Arawakan
Subdivisions
  • Iñeri
  • Ta-Arawakan proper
Glottologcari1281

The Ta-Arawakan languages, also known as Ta-Maipurean and Caribbean, are the indigenous Arawakan languages of the Caribbean Sea coasts of Central and South America. They are distinguished by the first person pronominal prefix ta-, as opposed to common Arawakan na-.

Languages

Kaufman (1994) provides the following subclassification:

Aikhenvald adds Shebayo, which Kaufman had left unclassified, and removes Iñeri from Ta-Arawakan proper:

Caribbean Arawakan

Proto-language

Reconstructions of Proto-Lokono-Guajiro proposed by Captain (1991):[1]

no. gloss Proto Lokono-Guajiro
1. ‘abdomen’ *Vteke
2. ‘after’ *dikʰi
3. ‘ant’ *hayu
4. ‘anteater’ *waRiti
5. ‘arm’ *dɨna
6. ‘armadillo’ *yekerV
7. ‘arrow’ *kimařa
8. ‘ash’ *baliki
9. ‘ask’ *asa (?)
10. ‘axe’ *bařu
11. ‘back’ *asabu
12. ‘bat’ *busiri
13. ‘bathe’ *aka
14. ‘beard’ *tiima
15. ‘bird’ *kudibiu
16. ‘blood’ *itʰa
17. ‘bone’ *Vbu-na
18. ‘breast’ *(u)di
19. ‘break’ *wakVdV-
20. ‘by (agent)’ *duma
21. ‘cane’ *isi
22. ‘canoe’ *kanuwa
23. ‘chest’ *Vluwa
24. ‘child’ *(?)ibili
25. ‘chili pepper’ *hatʰi
26. ‘chop’ *lada
27. ‘cold, have a *tʰunuli-
28. ‘come’ *andV
29. ‘cricket’ *pʰuti
30. ‘crocodile’ *kayukutʰi
31. ‘delicious’ *keme-
32. ‘down’ *unabu
33. ‘drink (v)’ *VtʰV
34. ‘ear’ *dike
35. ‘egret’ *wakaRa
36. ‘eye’ *aku
37. ‘exit (v)’ *apʰuti-
38. ‘fat, grease’ *akusi
39. ‘father’ *Vtʰi
40. ‘finger’ *kʰabu-ibira
41. ‘fingernail’ *bada
42. ‘fire’ *sikʰi
43. ‘fish’ *hime
44. ‘flea’ *kʰayaba
45. ‘flesh’ *kiruku
46. ‘flower’ *siwi
47. ‘fly’ *mabuRi
48. ‘foot’ *ukuti
49. ‘for (benefactive)’ *bura
50. ‘forehead’ *kibu
51 ‘from (LOC)’ *-kee
52. ‘fur’ *Vti
53. ‘go’ *kuna
54. ‘gourd’ *iwida
55. ‘grandfather’ *dukutʰi
56. ‘grandmother’ *kVtʰV
57. ‘green’ *subule
58. ‘hair’ *Vbařa
59. ‘hammock’ *hamaka; *kura
60. ‘hand’ *kʰabu
61. ‘hate, be hated’ *te-
62. ‘head’ *ikiwi
63. ‘hear’ *akanaba
64. ‘here’ *yaha
65. ‘honey’ *maba
66. ‘horn’ *ukuwa
67. ‘house’ *bahɨ
68. ‘I’ *dakia
69. ‘iguana’ *iwana
70. ‘in’ *luku
71 ‘in (a fluid)’ *raku
72. ‘juice’ *Vra
73. ‘kill’ *pʰarV
74. ‘knife’ *ruři
75. ‘leaf *bana
76. ‘liver’ *bana
77. ‘maize’ *mariki
78. ‘manioc’ *kʰali
79. ‘manioc starch’ *hařo
80. ‘many’ *yuhu
81. ‘monkey’ *pʰudi
82. ‘moon’ *katʰi
83. ‘mosquito’ *maRi
84. ‘mother’ *uyu
85. ‘neck’ *nuru
86. ‘nose’ *kiri
87. ‘one’ *aba
88. ‘path’ *bɨna; *wabu
89. ‘peck’ *tuka-
90. ‘penis’ *ewera
91. ‘rat’ *kuři
92. ‘raw’ *iya
93. ‘request’ *kʰuyabV-
94. ‘resin’ *Vkʰɨ
95. ‘ripe’ *hebe
96. ‘river’ *sVři
97. ‘root’ *akura
98. ‘say’ *akV
99. ‘sea’ *bařawa
100. ‘seat, stool’ *turu
101. ‘she’ *tʰukia
102. ‘skin’ *Vda
103. ‘sleep’ *dunkV
104. ‘snake’ *uri
105. ‘son-in-law’ *titʰi
106. ‘sound’ *akanVkɨ
107. ‘star’ *iwiwa
108. ‘stone’ *kiba
109. ‘stop’ *takɨ-
110. ‘sweet potato’ *halitʰi
111. ‘tail’ *isi
112. ‘tapir’ *kama
113. ‘termite’ *kʰumutʰiri
114. ‘that (masculine)’ *lira
115. ‘that (non-masculine)’ *tura
116. ‘there’ *yara
117. ‘they’ *nakia
118. ‘thigh’ *(N)bɨku
119. ‘this (masculine)’ *lihi
120. ‘this (non-masculine)’ *tuhu
121. ‘thou’ *bukia
122. ‘three’ *kabɨnV
123. ‘tip’ *kiruku
124. ‘toad’ *kiberu
125. ‘tobacco’ *yuři
126. ‘tongue’ *Vyee
127. ‘tooth’ *ari
128. ‘touch, feel’ *bebeda
129. ‘tree’ *kunuku
130. ‘two’ *biama
131. ‘up’ *iu-
132. ‘vomit’ *ewedV
133. ‘water’ *uni
134. ‘we’ *wakia
135. ‘with (accomp.)’ *Vma
136. ‘whistle’ *wiwida-
137. ‘woman’ *hiaru
138. ‘worm’ *-koma-
139. ‘ye’ *hukia
140. ‘yes’ *VNhVN
141. (absolutive) *-hV
142. (poss. suffix) *-tʰe

References

  1. ^ Captain, D. (1991 [2005]). Proto-Lokono-Guajiro. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Etnolingüísticos, 10:137-172.

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