Ticuna–Yuri languages

western Amazon
Linguistic classificationDuho (proposed)

Ticuna–Yuri is a small family, perhaps even a dialect continuum, consisting of at least two, and perhaps three, known languages of South America: the major western Amazonian language Ticuna, the poorly attested and extinct Yurí, and the scarcely known language of the largely uncontacted Carabayo. Kaufman (2007: 68) also adds Munichi to the family.[2]

Kaufman (1990, 1994) argues that the connection between the two is convincing even with the limited information available. Carvalho (2009) presented "compelling" evidence for the family (Campbell 2012).[3]

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Andoke-Urekena, Arawak, Arutani, Jukude ('Maku'), and Tukano language families due to contact.[4]


  • Anderson, D. (1962). Conversational Ticuna. Yarinacocha: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Anderson, L. (1961). Vocabulario breve del idioma ticuna. Tradición, 8:53-68.
  • de Alviano, F. (1944). Gramática, dictionário, verbos e frases e vocabulário prático da léngua dos índios ticunas. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional.
  • Goulard, J.; Rodriguez Montes, M. E. (2013). Los yurí/juri-tikuna en el complejo socio-lingüístico del Noroeste Amazónico. LIAMES, 13:7-65.
  • Montes Rodríguez, M. E. (2003). Morfosintaxis de la lengua Tikuna (Amazonía colombiana). (CESO-CCELA, Descripciones, 15). Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ticuna–Yuri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Kaufman, Terrence. 2007. South America. In: R. E. Asher and Christopher Moseley (eds.), Atlas of the World’s Languages (2nd edition), 59–94. London: Routledge.
  3. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2012). "Classification of the indigenous languages of South America". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 59–166. ISBN 9783110255133.
  4. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  • Kaufman, Terrence (1990). "Language History in South America: What we know and how to know more". In David L. Payne (ed.). Amazonian Linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 13−74.
  • Kaufman, Terrence (1994). "The native languages of South America". In Moseley, Christopher; R.E. Asher (eds.). Atlas of the world's languages. London: Routledge. pp. 46−76.

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