Tiniguan languages

Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families

The Tiniwan languages are two extinct and one moribund language of Colombia that form a small family.

Jolkesky (2016) also notes that there are lexical similarities with Andaqui.[1]


The Tiniwan languages are:

Nothing is known about Majigua (Campbell 2012).[2] It was once spoken on the Ariari River in the Meta region of Colombia.[3]


Though data on Pamigua is extremely limited, the relationship seems to be fairly close: Tinigua manaxaí 'walk!', Pamigua menáxa 'let's go!'.

gloss Tinigua Pamigua
'eye' zəti, zuti sete
'man' psätseyá piksiga
'woman' ñíza ništá
'water' ñikwáiši nikagé
'fire' ičísa ekisá
'dog' šámno šannó
'jaguar' žíña šiñaga
'maize' tʸoka šukšá
'eleven' čimatóse-kiésä čipse ipa-kiaši

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Tinigua and Pamigua.[3]

gloss Tinigua Pamigua
one kiíe chixanse
two xädzá saxansesá
three dzapéxi sanchikanse
head zyíti blusteá
eye zúti sete
tooth yóto
man xanóso piksiga
water ñinkwáshi nikagé
fire ichísa ekisá
sun níxo
maize thóka xuxá
jaguar chíña xiñagá


  1. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  2. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2012). "Classification of the indigenous languages of South America". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 59–166. ISBN 978-3-11-025513-3.
  3. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

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