Trans–São Francisco languages

Trans–São Francisco
São Francisco River basin of Northeast Brazil
Linguistic classificationMacro-Jê
  • Eastern
    • Trans–São Francisco
Macro-Ge groups.svg
The Macro-Jê families according to Kaufman

The Trans–São Francisco languages[1] (Portuguese: Transanfranciscano) are a proposed grouping of languages within Macro-Jê. They consist of the Krenák, Maxakalían, and possibly also the Kamakã families. The Trans–São Francisco group was originally proposed and demonstrated by Nikulin and Silva (2020) under the name of Maxakalí-Krenák.[2]

They are named after the São Francisco River of Northeast Brazil.[1]


Internal classification of Trans–São Francisco by Nikulin (2020):[1]


Proto-Trans–São Francisco
Reconstruction ofTrans–São Francisco languages
Lower-order reconstructions

Proto-Trans–São Francisco has been reconstructed by Nikulin (2020),[1] while there is also a Proto-Kamakã reconstruction by Martins (2007).[3]

See also

Further reading


  1. ^ a b c d Nikulin, Andrey. 2020. Proto-Macro-Jê: um estudo reconstrutivo. Doctoral dissertation, University of Brasília.
  2. ^ Nikulin, Andrey; Silva, Mário André Coelho da (2020). "As línguas Maxakalí e Krenák dentro do tronco Macro-Jê". Cadernos de Etnolingüística. 8 (1): 1–64.
  3. ^ Martins, Andérbio Márcio Silva. 2007. Revisão da Família Lingüística Kamakã Proposta por Chestmir Loukotka. MA thesis, University of Brasília.

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