Treaty of Paris (1920)

Treaty of Paris
Typemultilateral peace treaty
Signed28 October 1920 (1920-10-28)
LocationParis, France
 United Kingdom
 Japan (never ratified)
RatifiersRomania, France, UK, Italy

The 1920 Treaty of Paris was an act signed by Romania and the principal Allied Powers of the time (France, United Kingdom, Italy and Japan) whose purpose was the recognition of Romanian sovereignty over Bessarabia.[1] The treaty, however, never came into force because Japan failed to ratify it.[2][3]

On 9 April 1918 (old style 27 March 1918), during the chaos of the Russian Civil War, the Bessarabian legislature (Sfatul Țării) voted in favor of the Union of Bessarabia with Romania with 86 votes in favor, three against, and 36 abstentions, an act regarded by the Russians as a Romanian invasion.[4]

As with the Treaty of Versailles, the 1920 treaty contained the Covenant of the League of Nations, and, as a result, it was not ratified by the United States. The United States refused initially to sign the Treaty on the grounds that Russia was not represented at the treaty conference.[5]

The Paris Peace Treaty of 28 October 1920, formally recognized the union of Bessarabia with Romania. The union was recognized by the United Kingdom, France and Italy, but Japan did not ratify it, and the Soviet Union never recognized this Union.[6]

Japan's failure to ratify the treaty meant that the treaty never came into force. Japan's actions came as a result of a secret protocol which was part of the state treaty concluded between Japan and the Soviet Union in 1925.[7]


  1. ^ Malbone W. Graham (October 1944). "The Legal Status of the Bukovina and Bessarabia". The American Journal of International Law. American Society of International Law. 38 (4): 667–673. doi:10.2307/2192802. JSTOR 2192802.
  2. ^ Ioan Bulei (March 1998). "Roma, 1924-1927". Magazin Istoric. Fundaţia Culturală Magazin Istoric (3). Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  3. ^ Foreign Affairs Association of Japan, 1940, Contemporary Japan: A Review of Japanese Affairs, Volume 9, p. 439
  4. ^ Edward Ozhiganov, The Republic of Moldova: Transdniester and the 14th Army In: Alexei Arbatov et al., (eds.) Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1997) pp. 145-209.
  5. ^ Wayne S Vucinich, Bessarabia In: Collier's Encyclopedia (Crowell Collier and MacMillan Inc., 1967) vol. 4, p. 103
  6. ^ Altin Iliriani. "Romanian Unity and Moldavian Integration from the 19th Century until WW II". European Research and Information Center, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta - Northern Cyprus. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
  7. ^ Takako Ueta, Eric Remacle, Peter Lang, 2005, Japan and Enlarged Europe: Partners in Global Governance, p. 81

External links

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