Ukraine–NATO relations

Ukraine-NATO relations



Relations between Ukraine and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) started in 1994.[1] Ukraine applied to begin a NATO Membership Action Plan (MAP) in 2008.[2][3] Plans for NATO membership were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych, who preferred to keep the country non-aligned, was elected President.[4][5] Amid the Euromaidan unrest, Yanukovych fled Ukraine in February 2014.[6] The interim Yatseniuk Government which came to power initially said, with reference to the country's non-aligned status, that it had no plans to join NATO.[7] However, following the Russian military invasion in Ukraine and parliamentary elections in October 2014, the new government made joining NATO a priority.[8]

Russia's reaction to the 2008 plan of the then Ukrainian Government to start a membership action plan (MAP) was hostile. Nevertheless, the following year, NATO spokesman said that despite Russian opposition to NATO's eastward expansion the alliance's door remained open to those who met the criteria.[9]

According to polls conducted between 2005 and 2013, Ukrainian public support of NATO membership remained low.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] However, since Russian military intervention in Ukraine and Crimea, public support for Ukrainian membership in NATO has risen greatly. Since June 2014, polls showed that about 50% of those asked supported Ukrainian NATO membership.[17][18][19][20] Some 69% of Ukrainians want to join NATO, according to a June 2017 poll by the Democratic Initiatives Foundation, compared to 28% support in 2012 when Yanukovich was in power.[21]

History of relations

Ukrainian APC along a highway from Al Kut to As Suwayrah in Iraq (late 2003)
Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Victoria Nuland at the NATO–Ukraine consultations in Vilnius, Lithuania, on October 24, 2005

Relations officially began when Ukraine became the first CIS country to enter NATO's Partnership for Peace program in February 1994.[1][22] In the summer of 1995 NATO stepped up to help to mitigate consequences of the Kharkiv Drinking Water Disaster. This was the first cooperation between NATO and Ukraine.[23] On May 7, 1997 the first-ever official NATO Information and Documentation Center opened in Kyiv, aimed to foster transparency about the alliance.[24] A Ukrainian public opinion poll of May 6 showed 37% in favor of joining NATO with 28% opposed and 34% undecided.[25] On July 9, 1997, a NATO-Ukraine Commission was established.[26] In 2002 relations with the government of the United States and other NATO countries deteriorated after one of the recordings made during the Cassette Scandal revealed an alleged transfer of a sophisticated Ukrainian defense system to Saddam Hussein's Iraq.[22] At the NATO enlargement summit in November 2002, the NATO–Ukraine commission adopted a Ukraine–NATO Action Plan. President Kuchma's declaration that Ukraine wanted to join NATO (also in 2002) and the sending of Ukrainian troops to Iraq in 2003[22] could not mend relations between Kuchma and NATO.[22] Currently, the Ukrainian Armed Forces are working with NATO in Iraq.[27]

After the Orange Revolution in 2004 Kuchma was replaced by President Viktor Yushchenko who is a keen supporter of Ukraine's NATO membership.[28] In January 2008 the second Yulia Tymoshenko cabinet's proposal for Ukraine to join NATO's Membership Action Plan was met with opposition. A petition of over 2 million signatures has called for a referendum on Ukraine's membership proposal to join NATO. The opposition have called for a national referendum to be held on any steps towards further involvement with NATO. In February 2008 57.8% of Ukrainians supported the idea of a national referendum on joining NATO, against 38.6% in February 2007.[29]

Ukrainian bid to join the NATO Membership Action Plan

In January 2008, US Senator Richard Lugar said: "Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and Parliamentary Chairman Arsenii Yatseniuk have signed the statement calling for consideration on Ukraine's entry into the NATO membership action plan at the Bucharest summit."[30]

The Ukrainian parliament headed by Arsenii Yatseniuk was unable to hold its regular parliamentary session following the decision of the Parliamentary Opposition to prevent the parliament from functioning in a protest against joining NATO. The parliament was blocked from January 25, 2008[31] till March 4, 2008 (on 29 February 2008 faction leaders agreed on a protocol of mutual understanding).[32] US President George W. Bush and both nominees for President of the United States in the 2008 election, U.S. senator Barack Obama and U.S. senator John McCain, did offer backing to Ukraine's membership of NATO.[33][34][35] Russian reactions were negative.

Bucharest summit: 2008–2009

At the NATO summit in Bucharest in April 2008, NATO decided it would not yet offer membership to Georgia and Ukraine; nevertheless, Nato Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said that Georgia and Ukraine would eventually become members.[36] Resistance was reportedly met from France and Germany.[37]

In November 2008, Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel, Prime-Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and former Ukrainian minister of defence Anatolii Hrytsenko doubted Ukraine would be granted membership of MAP in December 2008.[38] In a Times of London interview in late November, President Yushchenko stated : "Ukraine has done everything it had to do. We are devoted to this pace. Everything else is an issue of political will of those allies who represent NATO."[39] Although NATO Deputy Assistant Secretary-General Aurelia Bouchez[nb 1] and NATO's Secretary General, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer[nb 2] still supported Ukraine's NATO bid at the time the Bush administration seemed not to push for Georgian and Ukrainian membership of MAP late November 2008.[nb 3] President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev responded that "reason has prevailed".[43] On December 3, 2008 NATO decided it will work out an Annual National Programme of providing assistance to Ukraine to implement reforms required to accede the alliance without referring to MAP.[44]

At the NATO-Ukraine consultations at the level of Defense Ministers held at the NATO headquarters in Brussels in November 2009, NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen praised Ukraine's first Annual National Program, which outlined the steps it intended to take to accelerate internal reform and alignment with Euro-Atlantic standards, as an important step on Ukraine's path to becoming a member of the Alliance.[45]

Yanukovych Presidency (2010–2014)

Candidate during the 2010 presidential election and Party of Regions leader Viktor Yanukovych stated during 2010 presidential election-campaign that the current level of Ukraine's cooperation with NATO was sufficient and that the question of the country's accession to the alliance was therefore not urgent.[46][47]

Following the election, on 14 February 2010, the newly elected President Viktor Yanukovych said that Ukraine's relations with NATO were currently "well-defined", and that there was "no question of Ukraine joining NATO". He said the issue of Ukrainian membership of NATO might "emerge at some point, but we will not see it in the immediate future."[5]

On 1 March 2010, during his visit to Brussels, Yanukovych said that there would be no change to Ukraine's status as a member of the alliance's outreach program.[48] He later reiterated during a trip to Moscow that Ukraine would remain a "European, non-aligned state."[49]

As of May 2010, NATO and Ukraine continued to cooperate in the frame of the Annual National Program,[50] including joint exercises.[51] According to Ukraine the continuation of Ukraine-NATO cooperation does not exclude the development of a strategic partnership with Russia.[52]

On 27 May 2010, Yanukovych stated that he considered Ukraine's relations with NATO as a partnership, "And Ukraine can't live without this [partnership], because Ukraine is a large country".[53]

On 3 June 2010, the Ukrainian parliament passed a bill proposed by the President that excluded the goal of "integration into Euro-Atlantic security and NATO membership" from the country's national security strategy.[54] The law precluded Ukraine's membership of any military bloc, but allowed for co-operation with alliances such as NATO.[55] "European integration" is still part of Ukraine's national security strategy.[54]

On 24 June 2010, the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers approved an action plan to implement an annual national program of cooperation with NATO in 2010.[56] This included:[56]

  • Involvement of Ukrainian aviation and transport material in the transportation of cargo and personnel of the armed forces of NATO's member states and partners participating in NATO-led peacekeeping missions and operations
  • The continuation of Ukraine's participation in a peacekeeping operation in Kosovo
  • Possible reinforcing of Ukraine's peacekeeping contingents in Afghanistan and Iraq
  • Ukraine's participation in a number of international events organized by NATO
  • Training of Ukrainian troops in the structures of NATO members

Ukraine and NATO continued to hold joint seminars and joint tactical and strategical exercises and operations during Yanukovych Presidency.[57]

Euromaidan and beyond

Yanukovych fled Ukraine amid the Euromaidan uprising in February 2014.[6] As a result of this revolution, the interim Yatseniuk Government came to power in Ukraine.[58][59] The Yatseniuk Government initially stated it did not have the intention of making Ukraine a member of NATO.[7]

Petro Poroshenko with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Vice President of the United States Joe Biden, February 2015

NATO officials vowed support for Ukraine and worked to downplay tensions between the bloc and Russia, which refused to recognize the impeachment of Yanukovych or the Yatseniuk Government.[60] In late February 2014, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Secretary General of NATO, reaffirmed that NATO membership is still an option for Ukraine.[61]

On 29 August 2014, following reports that the Russian military was operating within Ukraine, Ukrainian Prime Minister Arsenii Yatseniuk announced that he would ask the Ukrainian parliament to put Ukraine on a path towards NATO membership.[62] The government has also signaled that it hopes for major non-NATO ally status with the United States, NATO's largest military power and contributor.[63] As part of these efforts, and to rule out future Ukrainian membership in the Eurasian Economic Union and other Russian-led supranational entities, Yatseniuk also submitted a draft law to repeal Ukraine's non-bloc status previously instituted by Yanukovych.[64] Following parliamentary elections in October 2014, the new government made joining NATO a priority.[8]

Soldiers of the U.S. Army 6th Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division train Ukrainian Soldiers on trigger squeeze during a 2016 drill.

On 23 December 2014, the Ukrainian parliament renounced Ukraine's non-aligned status, a step harshly condemned by Russia.[6][65] The new law states that Ukraine's previous non-aligned status "proved to be ineffective in guaranteeing Ukraine's security and protecting the country from external aggression and pressure" and also aims to deepen Ukrainian cooperation with NATO "in order to achieve the criteria which are required for membership in the alliance".[66] On 29 December 2014, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko (elected president on 25 May 2014)[67][68][69][70][71][72] vowed to hold a referendum on joining NATO.[73]

A number of military exercises were planned between NATO members and Ukraine in 2015.[74] Among them were Operation Fearless Guardian (total 2,200 participants, including 1,000 U.S. military). Initial personnel and equipment of the 173rd Airborne Brigade arrived in Yavoriv, Lviv Oblast, on 10 April 2015. Fearless Guardian would train Ukraine's newly formed National Guard under the Congress-approved Global Contingency Security Fund. Under the program, the United States were to train three battalions of Ukrainian troops over a six-month period beginning in April 2015,[75] Others exercises include Exercise Sea Breeze 2015 (total 2,500 personnel of which 1,000 US military and 500 military from NATO or "Partnership for Peace" countries), "Saber Guardian/Rapid Trident – 2015" (total 2,100 members, including 500 US military and 600 NATO/PfP personnel), as well as the Ukrainian-Polish air exercise "Safe Skies – 2015" (total 350 participants, including 100 Polish military) and military police "Law and Order – 2015" (total 100 participants, 50 of which are Polish military).[citation needed]

In September 2015, NATO launched five trust funds for €5.4 million for the Ukrainian army. €2 million are planned to be sent for the modernization of communication systems, €1.2 million – to reform the logistic and standardization systems, €845 thousand – for physical rehabilitation and prostheses, €815 thousand for cyber defense, and €410 thousand for retraining and resettlement.[citation needed]

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and Petro Poroshenko, 10 July 2017

In March 2016, President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker stated that it would take at least 20–25 years for Ukraine to join the EU and NATO.[76] On 8 June 2017, Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada passed a law making integration with NATO a foreign policy priority.[77] In July 2017 Poroshenko announced that he would seek the opening of negotiations on a Membership Action Plan with NATO.[78] In that same month President Poroshenko began proposing a 'patronage system', tying individual regions with European States.[79]

On the 10th of March 2018, NATO added Ukraine in the list of NATO aspiring members (others including Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia). Several months later, in late June, Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada passed a National Security bill: the bill defines the principles of state policy on national security and defence as well as focusing on Ukraine's integration into the European security, economic and legal system; improvement in mutual relations with other states and eventual membership in EU and NATO.

On September 20, 2018, the Ukrainian parliament approved amendments to the constitution that would make the accession of the country to NATO and the EU a central goal and the main foreign policy objective.[80]

On 7 February 2019, the Ukrainian parliament voted with a majority of 334 out of 385 to change the Ukrainian constitution in order to help Ukraine to join NATO and the European Union.[81] After the vote, Ukrainian president Poroshenko declared: "This is the day when the movement of Ukraine to the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance will be consolidated in the Constitution as a foreign political landmark."[82]

On 12 June 2020, Ukraine joined NATO's enhanced opportunity partner interoperability program.[nb 4][83] According to an official, NATO statement the new status "does not prejudge any decisions on NATO membership."[83]

On October 8, 2020, during a meeting with Prime Minister Boris Johnson in London, President Volodymyr Zelenskyi stated that Ukraine needs a NATO Membership Action Plan, as NATO membership will contribute to Ukraine's security and defense.[84]

On December 1, 2020, the Minister of Defense of Ukraine Andrii Taran stated that Ukraine clearly outlines its ambitions to obtain the NATO Membership Action Plan and hopes for comprehensive political and military support for such a decision at the next Alliance Summit in 2021. Addressing the ambassadors and military attaches of NATO member states, as well as representatives of the NATO office in Ukraine, they were urged to inform their capitals that Ukraine would hope for their full politico-military support in reaching such a decision at the next NATO Summit in 2021. This should be a practical step and a demonstration of commitment to the 2008 Bucharest Summit.[85]

At the end of November 2020, it became known that the NATO Summit in 2021 will consider the issue of returning to "open door policy", including the issue of providing Georgia with a Membership Action Plan (MAP). On February 9, 2021, the Prime Minister of Ukraine, Denys Shmyhal, stated that he hoped that Ukraine would be able to receive an action plan for NATO membership at the same time as Georgia.[86] In response, Alliance Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg confirmed during Prime Minister Shmyhal's visit to Brussels that Ukraine is a candidate for NATO membership.[87]

On April 7, 2021, after the start of the build-up of Russian troops near the Ukrainian border, Lithuanian Foreign Minister Gabrielius Landsbergis told a press conference with his Spanish counterpart Arancha González Laya that Lithuania intends to offer its NATO allies to provide Ukraine with a Membership Action Plan (MAP):

In the near future, we should again turn to our colleagues with a letter to consider the possibility of granting MAP to Ukraine. I am convinced, and we have already begun to discuss this issue with our colleagues from the Baltic states, NATO could repeat its proposal to provide Ukraine with a membership plan. This step will become a "strong signal for Russia", in particular, that Ukraine has chosen the transatlantic direction for itself, is appreciated and has support in the NATO countries. – emphasized Landsbergis.

For her part, the Spanish Foreign Minister, despite the fact that Ukraine is not a member of the Alliance, said that the Allies' relations with it are already "fruitful, useful and are a symbol of NATO's vision of a peaceful neighborhood." She also added that the issue of Ukraine should be discussed at the summit of the North Atlantic Alliance, which is scheduled for June this year.[88]

Following in the footsteps of his Lithuanian counterpart, Latvian Foreign Minister Edgars Rinkēvičs said that NATO should provide Ukraine with a membership action plan:[89]

We are watching closely as Russia draws troops to Ukraine's borders. It is not clear at this time what this is: a show of force or real aggression. But there is every reason to worry ... Ukraine has been trying to join NATO for 15 years by obtaining an Membership Action Plan. Apparently, it is time to provide this Plan to Ukraine. This will be at least a signal from us [NATO] that Ukrainians will not be left without support. I will definitely support this decision...

On April 10, 2021, the Minister of Defense of Ukraine Andrii Taran stated that the top priority of the Ukrainian political leadership is to obtain the Action Plan for Membership (MAP) in the North Atlantic Alliance in 2021. According to the head of the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense, the most convincing and effective mechanism for communicating the position of the international community to Moscow is "accelerating the implementation of the decision of the 2008 NATO Bucharest Summit on our membership in the Alliance."[90] Also receiving the MAP for Ukraine was supported by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan in a joint declaration of the Ninth High-Level Strategic Council between Ukraine and the Republic of Turkey.[91]

Popular opinion in Ukraine

Popular support in Ukraine for NATO membership since 2002
Date Opinion Poll agency
For Against
March 2014 44% 47% GfK[104]
April 2014 36% 48% Razumkov Centre[105]
May 2014 37% 42% Razumkov Centre[106]
May 2014 41% 40% Democratic Initiatives Foundation & Razumkov Centre[107]
June 2014 41% 40% Razumkov Centre[108]
June 2014 47% 36% Gorshenin Institute[109]
July 2014 44% 34% RATING[110]
October 2014 53% 34% Gorshenin Institute[17]
November 2014 51% 25% RATING[18]
March 2015 43.3% 33.4% Kyiv International Institute of Sociology[111]
June 2015 53% 32% Pew Research Center[112]
July 2015 63.9% 28.5% Democratic Initiatives Foundation & Razumkov Centre[113]
December 2015 75% 11% Democratic Initiatives Foundation[114]
January 2016 47% 31% RATING[19]
March 2016 45% 30% RATING[20]
June 2016 39% 32% RATING[115]
September 2016 39% 31% Kyiv International Institute of Sociology[116]
December 2016 71% 23% Democratic Initiatives Foundation & Razumkov Centre[117]
June 2019 53% 29% RATING[118]

Western Ukraine has always been significantly more pro-NATO than the rest of the country.[119][98][120]

Eastern Ukraine is far more anti-NATO and pro-Russia than the rest of Ukraine.[120][121]

A Gallup poll conducted in October 2008 showed that 43% of Ukrainians associated NATO as a threat to their country, while only 15% associated it with protection.[122] A November 2009 poll by Ukrainian Project System relieved 40.1% of Ukrainians polled said the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) was the best global security group for Ukraine to be a part of and 33.9% of the respondents supported Ukraine's full membership in CSTO; more than 36% of the respondents of the poll said that Ukraine should remain neutral and only 12.5% supported Ukraine's accession to NATO.[123] A 2009 Gallup poll showed that 40% of Ukrainian adults associate NATO with "Threat" and 17% with "Protection".[16] According to a poll by Razumkov Center in March 2011 20.6% on average across Ukraine considered NATO a threat; this number was 51% in Crimea.[124] A 2013 Gallup poll showed that 29% associated NATO with "Threat" and 17% with "Protection"; 44% viewed it as neither.[121]

Following the Russian military intervention of 2014, annexation of Crimea and the start of the Donbass War, many Ukrainians changed their views of NATO: polls from the middle of 2014 till 2016 showed that the majority of Ukrainians supported NATO membership.[17][18][19][125]

An electronic petition to the president of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko was filed on 29 August 2015[126] requesting that a referendum on joining NATO be conducted. The petition achieved the required 25,000 votes to be considered. The president's reply stated that "One of the main priorities of Ukraine's foreign policy is to deepen cooperation with NATO to achieve the criteria required for membership in this organization. Today, we carry out security sector reform in Ukraine to reach NATO standards and to strengthen the country's defense system, which is necessary to counter Russian aggression. Once Ukraine fulfills all the necessary criteria to join the Alliance, final decision on this important issue will be approved by the Ukrainian people in a referendum."[127]

In February 2017, President Poroshenko announced that a referendum would be held during his presidency, with polls showing that 54% of Ukrainians favor such a move.[128]

Russian opposition to Ukrainian NATO membership

Russia is strongly opposed to any eastward expansion of NATO.[129][130] On February 12, 2008, (then) Russian President Vladimir Putin said Russia may target its missiles at Ukraine if its neighbour joins NATO and accepts the deployment of a US missile defence shield.[131] Former Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko has stated more than once his country would not allow foreign military bases on its territory;[132] as of December 2009, NATO was not planning to deploy military bases in Ukraine.[133]

Prime Minister Vladimir Putin reportedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine joined NATO his country could contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[134]

During a NATO conference in Hungarian parliament on 20 November 2008, Deputy Assistant Secretary-General Aurelia Bouchez said: "We should not make a choice between NATO enlargement and Russia as we need both"[135][136] and NATO's Secretary General, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer told a conference in Spain twelve days later: "The emergence of independent states within the former Soviet space is a reality. The ability of these states to determine their own future is a litmus test for the new Europe. Do we have to choose between good relations with Russia and further enlargement? My answer is no – we will not choose, will not sacrifice one for the other. It would bring new dividing lines."[137]

In an interview with the BBC on 18 November 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin spokesmen Dmitry Peskov called for "a 100% guarantee that no-one would think about Ukraine joining NATO"; 2 days later Secretary General of NATO Jens Stoltenberg rejected this call stating it would be "violating the idea of respecting the sovereignty of Ukraine, which is a fundamental".[138][139]

Ukraine's foreign relations with NATO member states

See also


  1. ^ During a NATO conference in Hungarian parliament on 20 November, she said "We should not make a choice between NATO enlargement and Russia as we need both."[40]
  2. ^ He told a conference in Spain: "The emergence of independent states within the former Soviet space is a reality. The ability of these states to determine their own future is a litmus test for the new Europe. Do we have to choose between good relations with Russia and further enlargement? My answer is no – we will not choose, will not sacrifice one for the other. It would bring new dividing lines."[41]
  3. ^ Condoleezza Rice told a press conference, "We believe that the NATO-Georgia Commission and the NATO-Ukraine Commission can be the bodies with which we intensify our dialogue and our activities. And, therefore, there does not need at this point in time to be any discussion of MAP."[42]
  4. ^ Australia, Finland, Georgia, Jordan, and Sweden are also NATO's enhanced opportunity partner program partners.[83]


  1. ^ a b "Signatures of Partnership for Peace Framework Document". Nato..
  2. ^ "U.S. wins NATO backing for missile defense shield". CNN. June 12, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12.
  3. ^ "Rice, Kouchner, comment NATO Ministerial's decision". UNIAN. 3 December 2008.
  4. ^ "Ukraine makes it official: Nation will abandon plans to join NATO". Kyiv Post. May 28, 2010.
  5. ^ a b Yanukovych opens door to Russian navy keeping base in Ukraine GlobalSecurity.org Retrieved on March 09, 2010
  6. ^ a b c "Ukraine has no alternative to Euro-Atlantic integration – Poroshenko". Interfax-Ukraine. 23 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Deschytsia states new government of Ukraine has no intention to join NATO". Interfax-Ukraine. 29 March 2014.
  8. ^ a b "New Ukraine Coalition Agreed, Sets NATO As Priority". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2014-11-22. Retrieved 2014-11-22.
  9. ^ "Afghanistan, Russia top challenges for new NATO head". Reuters. July 30, 2009.
  10. ^ "Razumkov Centre poll". Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  11. ^ "Ukraine leftists meet NATO envoys with burning U.S. flag". RIA Novosti. 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
  12. ^ Khrestin, Igor (2008-08-18). "Politics as usual". UNIAN. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
  13. ^ Kupchinsky, Roman (2008-09-10). "Surprising and Contradictory Opinions on the Ukrainian Streets". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown foundation. Archived from the original on September 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  14. ^ NATO military exercise begins in Ukraine Retrieved on September 20, 2008
  15. ^ "Half of Ukrainians opposed to Ukraine's membership of NATO, poll indicates". Interfax-Ukraine. 2008-02-11. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
  16. ^ a b Ukrainians Likely Support Move Away From NATO, Gallup (April 2, 2010)
  17. ^ a b c Nearly 40% of Ukrainians ready to demonstrate if authorities do not fulfil promises, ITAR-TASS (October 22, 2014)
  18. ^ a b c (in Ukrainian) Accession to the EU support almost two-thirds of Ukrainians, 51% - for joining NATO - opinion poll 24 (TV channel) (20/11/14)
  19. ^ a b c Majority of Ukrainians would favor Ukraine membership in EU and NATO – poll, UNIAN (4 February 2016)
  20. ^ a b Less than half of Ukrainians support NATO membership, Interfax-Ukraine (18 April 2016)
  21. ^ "Pledging reforms by 2020". Reuters. 2017-07-11. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  22. ^ a b c d Serhy Yekelchyk "Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation", Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3
  23. ^ "Civil preparedness". nato.int. 7 June 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  24. ^ Gerald B. H. Solomon, Center for Strategic and International Studies. The NATO enlargement debate, 1990–1997, 1998, p. 120
  25. ^ Solomon, Center for Strategic and International Studies, p. 121
  26. ^ NATO-Ukraine Commission
  27. ^ "Armed Forces of Ukraine, Ukrainian peacekeeping personnel as a part of Multinational forces in Iraq (from Dec 2005) and NATO Training Mission in Iraq (NTM-I) (from Feb 2006)". Mil.gov.ua. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  28. ^ "Europe | Medvedev warns on Nato expansion". BBC News. 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  29. ^ Half of Ukrainians opposed to Ukraine's membership of NATO, poll indicates – Interfax Ukraine Archived June 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ "Ukraine asks to join NATO membership action plan : Ukraine News by UNIAN". Unian.net. 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  31. ^ "Party of Regions blocks rostrum in parliament : Ukraine News by UNIAN". Unian.net. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  32. ^ "Verkhovna Rada to resume work on Tuesday – Yatsenyuk : Ukraine News by UNIAN". Unian.net. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  33. ^ "Bush to back Ukraine's Nato hopes". BBC News. April 1, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  34. ^ Obama Statement on Ukraine's Commitment to Join NATO Archived 2008-06-25 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "McCain Backs Tougher Line Against Russia – March 27, 2008 – The New York Sun". Nysun.com. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  36. ^ "Nato denies Georgia and Ukraine". BBC News. April 3, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  37. ^ "At key time, French resist NATO membership for Ukraine, Georgia". Kyiv Post. November 30, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  38. ^ "Ukrainian News". Ukranews.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  39. ^ "European media publish interviews with President Yushchenko : UNIAN news". Unian.net. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  40. ^ NATO official: NATO needs both enlargement, Russia, UNIAN (20 November 2008)
  41. ^ Don’t turn deaf ear to Ukraine Nato bid, Viktor Yushchenko begs allies, UNIAN (20 November 2008)
  42. ^ US gives way on Nato for Georgia and Ukraine - FT, UNIAN (27 November 2008)
  43. ^ "Russia happy US dropped push for new NATO members : UNIAN news". Unian.net. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  44. ^ NATO To Work Out National Programme Of Assistance To Ukraine For Acceding Alliance, Ukrainian News Agency (December 3, 2008)]
  45. ^ NATO Secretary General says Annual National Program is important step on Ukraine's path to membership in Alliance, Interfax-Ukraine (November 16, 2009)
  46. ^ "Europe or Russia? Whom will Ukraine Choose?". The World Reporter. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  47. ^ Yanukovych describes current level of Ukraine's cooperation with NATO as sufficient, Interfax-Ukraine (January 12, 2010)
  48. ^ Ukraine's Yanukovych: EU ties a 'key priority', Kyiv Post (March 1, 2010)
  49. ^ Ukraine vows new page in ties with Russia Retrieved on March 09, 2010
  50. ^ NATO considers Ukraine's behavior 'unprecedented', Kyiv Post (May 25, 2010)
  51. ^ NATO: Euro-Atlantic prospects a sovereign right of Ukraine, Kyiv Post (May 26, 2010)
  52. ^ Havrysh: Ukraine-NATO cooperation not excluding strategic partnership between Moscow, Kyiv, Kyiv Post (May 26, 2010)
  53. ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine currently not ready to join NATO, Kyiv Post (May 27, 2010)
  54. ^ a b Ukraine drops NATO membership bid, EUobserver (June 6, 2010)
  55. ^ Ukraine's parliament votes to abandon Nato ambitions, BBC News (June 3, 2010)
  56. ^ a b Cabinet approves action plan for annual national program of cooperation with NATO in 2010, Kyiv Post (June 24, 2010)
  57. ^ Ukraine, NATO to hold security exercises during Euro 2012, Kyiv Post (26 March 2012)
    Yanukovych signs decree on Ukraine-NATO annual cooperation programs, Interfax-Ukraine (12 June 2013)
    Military manoeuvres in Ukraine Archived 2013-10-16 at the Wayback Machine, Euronews (4 August 2011)
    Thys, John (22 February 2013). "Ukraine Joins NATO's Counter-Piracy Operation". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  58. ^ Maidan nominates Yatsenyuk for prime minister, Interfax-Ukraine (26 February 2014)
  59. ^ Ukrainian parliament endorses new cabinet, Interfax-Ukraine (27 February 2014)
  60. ^ "NATO commander plays down tension with Russia over Ukraine". Reuters. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  61. ^ "Door to NATO remains open for Ukraine". Euronews. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  62. ^ "Ukraine crisis: PM Yatsenyuk to seek Nato membership". BBC News. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  63. ^ "Ukraine hopes for US assistance in granting Ukraine major non-NATO ally status". Kyiv Post. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  64. ^ "Ukraine to initiate cancellation of Ukraine's non-bloc status, seek NATO membership". ITAR-TASS. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  65. ^ Ukraine Ends ‘Nonaligned’ Status, Earning Quick Rebuke From Russia, The Wall Street journal (23 December 2014)
  66. ^ Spotlight: Scrapping non-aligned status paves Ukraine's way to NATO, fuels Russia's wrath. Xinhua News Agency. 2014-12-24.
  67. ^ "Ukraine talks set to open without pro-Russian separatists". The Washington Post. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  68. ^ "Ukraine elections: Runners and risks". BBC News. 22 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  69. ^ "Q&A: Ukraine presidential election". BBC News. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  70. ^ "Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote – CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  71. ^ Внеочередные выборы Президента Украины [Results election of Ukrainian president] (in Russian). Телеграф. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  72. ^ "New Ukrainian president will be elected for 5-year term – Constitutional Court". Interfax-Ukraine. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  73. ^ http://www.euronews.com/2014/12/30/new-year-new-hope-as-ukraine-paves-way-for-nato-membership/, Euronews (30 December 2014)
  74. ^ http://ukraineunderattack.org/en/poroshenko-approved-plan-for-multinational-exercises-involving-armed-forces-units-in-2015.html
  75. ^ U.S. Army Europe, Fearless Guardian ground convoy arrives in Ukraine, April 10, 2015
  76. ^ Juncker Says Ukraine Not Likely To Join EU, NATO For 20-25 Years. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Published on March 4, 2016.
  77. ^ "Rada restores Ukraine's course for NATO membership as foreign policy priority". Interfax-Ukraine. 2017-06-08. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
  78. ^ "Pledging reforms by 2020, Ukraine seeks route into NATO". Reuters. 2017-07-10. Retrieved 2017-07-22.
  79. ^ Genin, Aaron (September 2, 2018). "President Poroshenko Seeks European "Patronage" in Donbass Region". The California Review. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  80. ^ "Ukraine pushes ahead with plans to secure NATO membership". Associated Press. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  81. ^ "Ukraine's parliament backs changes to Constitution confirming Ukraine's path toward EU, NATO". Unian. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  82. ^ "We are going our way and this is the way to Ukraine's membership in the EU and NATO - President". The President of Ukraine. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  83. ^ a b c NATO Grants Ukraine 'Enhanced Opportunities Partner' Status, Radio Free Europe (12 June 2020)
  84. ^ "Zelenskyi said in Britain that Ukraine needed a MAP in NATO".
  85. ^ https://www.mil.gov.ua/news/2020/12/01/ambiczii-ukraini-otrimati-plan-dij-shhodo-chlenstva-na-samiti-nato-u-2021-roczi-andrij-taran/
  86. ^ Ukraine wants to get a MAP together with Georgia - Shmyhal
  87. ^ Prime Minister and NATO Secretary General discuss further steps towards Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic integration
  88. ^ Lithuania will offer NATO to provide MAP to Ukraine - Gabrielius Landsbergis
  89. ^ Latvian Foreign Minister: it is time to provide Ukraine with an action plan for NATO membership
  90. ^ Statement by the Minister of Defense of Ukraine Andriy Taran Ministry of Defence Ukraine
  91. ^ Joint Declaration of the Ninth Meeting of the High-Level Strategic Council between Ukraine and the Republic of Turkey
  92. ^ NATO-Ukraine relations In the public focus, Razumkov Centre, 17-25 June 2002 (page 55)
  93. ^ ELECTION BRIEFING NO. 16 - EUROPE AND THE UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 2004, European Parties Elections and Referendums Network/University of Sussex
  94. ^ Europe or Russia? Whom will Ukraine Choose?, The World Reporter (21 October 2011)
  95. ^ FOM-Ukraine April 2009 survey, FOM-Ukraine, Retrieved on 4 June 2009
  96. ^ Poll: over 40 percent of Ukrainians prefer Collective Security Treaty Organization , 12.5 percent favor NATO, Kyiv Post (November 26, 2009)
  97. ^ http://en.rian.ru/world/20100302/158069130.html Ukrainians want to enter EU, not NATO, poll shows], RIA Novosti (2 March 2010)
  98. ^ a b c d The language question, the results of recent research in 2012, RATING (25 May 2012)
  99. ^ DW-Trend: The majority of Ukrainians - against joining NATO, DW.DE (24.05.2011)
  100. ^ (in Ukrainian) Poll: Only 15% of Ukrainian citizens see their country in NATO 24 (TV channel) (17.05.12)
  101. ^ (in Russian)Ukrainians are less willing to NATO - poll, Liga.net (27.12.2012)
  102. ^ Poll: Almost half of Ukrainians back Ukraine's accession to EU, Kyiv Post (10 January 2012)
    (in Ukrainian) Майже половина українців хочуть в ЄС, трохи менше - в Митний союз Almost half of Ukrainian want the EU, a little less - the Customs Union, Ukrayinska Pravda (10 January 2013)
    (in Ukrainian) EU and Customs Union? Where citizens want to go? - A national survey, Democratic Initiative Foundation (21 to December 24, 2012)
  103. ^ (in Ukrainian) The majority of Ukrainians oppose NATO membership - poll, NB News (17.10.2013)
  104. ^ (in Ukrainian) Most Ukrainian happy to deal with the EU, but are not ready for NATO membership - poll, UNIAN (22 March 2014)
    (in Ukrainian) "1 +1" researched Ukrainian sentiment towards the EU, NATO, Russia, and Ukraine's new government, GfK Ukraine (22 March 2014)
    (in Ukrainian) "1 + 1" explored the Ukrainian sentiment towards the EU, NATO, Russia and the new government of Ukraine, Televiziyna Sluzhba Novyn (March 22, 2014)
  105. ^ Ukrainians supporting NATO membership in minority - poll, Interfax-Ukraine (14 May 2014)
  106. ^ (in Ukrainian) Результати соціологічного дослідження «Зовнішньополітичні орієнтації громадян України», Razumkov Center (13 May 2014)
  107. ^ (in Ukrainian) The attitude of citizens to join NATO and other security, Democratic Initiatives Foundation (1 July 2014)
  108. ^ (in Ukrainian) Analyst: "Spend less than 2% of GDP on" defense "we can afford only if join NATO", Den (newspaper) (July 3, 2014)
    (in Ukrainian) Sociologists have recorded the highest level of support for the idea of Ukraine's membership in NATO, UNIAN (02.07.2014)
  109. ^ Over 60% of Ukrainians want accession to EU, Ukrinform (17 June 2014)
    (in Ukrainian) Because of Russia almost half of all Ukrainians want to join NATO, Ukrayinska Pravda (17 June 2014)
    (in Ukrainian) Україна після революції: українці хочуть у Європу та НАТО і вимагають повної люстрації влади
  110. ^ (in Ukrainian) Almost half of the Ukrainian wants to join NATO - poll, TVi (22 July 2014)
  111. ^ (in Ukrainian) About half of Ukrainian for accession to the EU and NATO - poll , Korrespondent.net (26 March 2015)
  112. ^ NATO publics blame Russia for Ukrainian Crisis, but reluctant to provide military aid, Pew Research Center (10 June 2015)
  113. ^ Кому більше довіряють українці: владі, громадськості, ЗМІ..?, Democratic Initiatives Fund (3 August 2015)
  114. ^ "Більшість українців хоче в НАТО, - соцопитування". Espreso TV. 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
  115. ^ (in Ukrainian) Ukrainians have become skeptical attitude to joining NATO, Ukrayinska Pravda (11 July 2016)
  116. ^ (in Ukrainian) Most Ukrainian want the EU - poll KIIS, Ukrayinska Pravda (25 October 2016)
  117. ^ Most Ukrainians favor joining NATO, Interfax-Ukraine (28 December 2016)
    (in Ukrainian) Two third Ukrainian would vote for joining NATO - survey, Ukrayinska Pravda (28 December 2016)
  118. ^ Poll: NATO support grows in Ukraine, reaches 53 percent, Kyiv Post (9 July 2019)
  119. ^ Endgame in NATO's Enlargement: The Baltic States and Ukraine, Yaroslav Bilinsky, 1999, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-275-96363-2/ISBN 978-0-275-96363-7, page 25
  120. ^ a b Ukrainians supporting NATO membership in minority – poll, Interfax-Ukraine (14 May 2014)
  121. ^ a b Before Crisis, Ukrainians More Likely to See NATO as a Threat, Gallup (14 March 2014)
  122. ^ Ukrainians May Oppose President’s Pro-Western Goals Gallup Retrieved on August 26, 2009
  123. ^ Poll: over 40 percent of Ukrainians prefer Collective Security Treaty Organization, 12.5 percent favor NATO, Kyiv Post (November 26, 2009)
  124. ^ Poll: Most Crimean residents consider Ukraine their motherland, Kyiv Post (11 April 2011)
  125. ^ Sozialwissenschaften, GESIS Leibniz Institut für. "Umland, Andreas - Why Ukraine's Hope for NATO Membership Is Understandable, But Will Remain Unfulfilled | IndraStra Global - Sowiport". Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  126. ^ "Electronic petitions to the president of Ukraine. "Joining NATO referendum" (replied). Petition text (A.S.Baturyn)". 29 August 2015.
  127. ^ "Electronic petitions to the president of Ukraine. 'Joining NATO referendum' (replied). President's reply". 29 August 2015.
  128. ^ "Ukraine's Poroshenko plans referendum on NATO membership: German media". Reuters. 1 February 2017.
    "Ukraine's Petro Poroshenko 'will hold referendum' on Nato membership". Telegraph. 2 February 2017.
  129. ^ "Bush backs Ukraine on Nato bid". BBC News. 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  130. ^ "Ukraine Says 'No' to NATO". Pew Research Center. 29 March 2010.
  131. ^ "Russia in Ukraine missile threat". BBC News. February 12, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  132. ^ "Ukraine's territory will never be used against Russia, says Yuschenko". Interfax-Ukraine. July 6, 2009.
  133. ^ "NATO not planning to deploy military bases in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. December 16, 2009.
  134. ^ "Imperski kompleksy brativ rosiyan Abo Ne rozsypayte perly pered svynyamy" Імперські комплекси братів росіян Або Не розсипайте перли перед свинями [The Imperial complex of Russian brothers, or, Do not cast pearls before swine]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). July 3, 2008.
  135. ^ "NATO official: NATO needs both enlargement, Russia". UNIAN news. 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  136. ^ "NATO needs both enlargement, Russia". Mathaba. 2008-11-21. Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  137. ^ Tony Halpin (2008-11-20). "Don't turn deaf ear to Ukraine Nato bid, Viktor Yushchenko begs allies". The Times. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  138. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia demands guarantees from Nato". BBC News. 18 November 2014.
  139. ^ "Stoltenberg dismisses Kremlin's request for guarantees over Ukraine membership of NATO". The Baltic Times. 20 November 2014.

External links

This page was last updated at 2021-04-25 14:46, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari