wanweipedia

Urarina language

Urarina
Itucale
Native toPeru
RegionLoreto Region, Urarinas District along the Chambira River[1]
EthnicityUrarina people
Native speakers
3,000 (2002)[2]
Macro-Jibaro ?
  • Urarina
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3ura
Glottologurar1246[3]
Urarina language.png

Urarina is an isolated language spoken in Peru, specifically in the Loreto Region of Northwest Peru, by the Urarina people.[4] There are around 3,000 speakers in Urarinas District (along the Chambira River).[2] It uses a Latin script. It is also known as Itucali, Simacu or Shimacu.[2]

It has a canonical word order of object–verb–subject.[5][6]

Classification

The question of which language family Urarina belongs to is a controversial one among linguists as the language has been placed in a multitude of phyla by academics including Panoan, Tupian, Macro-Tucanoan, and Amerind. As of present, none of the proposals have any convincing linguistic arguments, and given the lack of resemblance Urarina has to any languages in the same area lexically or grammatically it is usually assumed that it is a language isolate.[7]

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arawak, Leko, and Omurano language families due to contact.[8]

Status

Urarina is presently spoken by around 3,000-2,000 members of the Urarina tribe. Although the majority of individuals still have the ability to speak the language, there is growing bilingualism and usage of Spanish in everyday life, as more and more Spanish-speaking mestizos have immigrated to the valley where the Urarina live. In addition the Urarina spoken by the younger generations has lost a large amount of the grammatical complexity and vocabulary the language once had, which is correlated to the loss of traditional cultural practices and beliefs. As such the language is considered vulnerable to endangered.[7]

Phonology

The following is the phonology of Urarina as described by Olawsky.[7]

Consonants

    Bilabials Dentals Retroflexives Palatals Velars Glottals
Occlusives Voiceless t /t/ k /k/
Voiced b /b/ d /d/
Labials kw //
Fricatives Voiceless s /s/ sh /ʃ/ h /h/
Labials fw //
Palatalization hj //
Affricatives ts /t͡ɕ/
Nasals m /m/ n /n/ ng /ɲ/
Liquids l /l/ r /ɽ/

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i /i/ ʉ /ʉ/ u /u/
Mid e /e/
Open a /a/

Grammar

Urarina has several interesting grammatical characteristics that are rather rare in other languages throughout the world. The language follows the OVS word order, and of all the languages that do follow it Urarina has been noted as the language that most strictly adheres to this word order in speech.[7] Another feature of Urarina is its complex person marking on all verbs (excluding borrowings). Every verb is marked according to three different paradigms which rely on a complicated set of pragmatic and syntactic conditions that must be adhered to.[7]

Urarina also follows an equally unique and complicated word class system. For example, numerals and adjectives that are borrowed from Quechua and Spanish are placed in a completely separate class from indigenous words. Urarina also follows syntactic rules where the pitch-accent system changes the tone of a word, based on the preceding word class.[7] All these features make Urarina unique and distinct from other neighboring languages and has recently developed a special interest from linguists.[7]

Aside from its more distinctive features, Urirana also follows a polysynthetic agglutinate word morphology in relating to verbs similar to other Amazonian languages. Many of Urarina's unique grammatical features are gradually disappearing as younger generations speak a Urarina that is being influenced by a growing bilingualism in Spanish.[7]

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Itucale.[1]

gloss Itucale
one exlehé
two kuradzá
head kuxterí
eye idichú
woman ení
fire öxsí
sun enotú
maize kaxturí
house luredí
white dzumaré

Flora and fauna

List of selected plant and animal names in Urarina:[9]

Urarina Local Spanish English Scientific name Family
aʉeno sacha culantro (coriander-like herb) Eryngium foetidum Apiaceae
aari topa balsa wood tree Ochroma pyramidale Bombacaceae
aari arambaza (type of bee)
aaĩ otorongo jaguar Felis yagouaroundi
aerana pucalupuna lighthouse tree (type) Ceiba pentandra (type)
ahai ɲe paiche giant arapaima (fish) Arapaima gigas Arapaimidae
ahariri gamitana tambaqui (fish) Colossoma macropomum Characidae
ahjaʉi uvilla (type of tree) Pourouma cecropiifolia Moraceae
ahjaaone santa maria (type of pepper plant) Piper peltatum Piperaceae
ajtɕuhiri armadillo grande giant armadillo Priodontes maximus
akʉaraa pona white nist palm Dictyocaryum ptarianum Arecaceae
akaa toé angel trumpet vine, datura Brugmansia sp. Solanaceae
akii camote morning glory (vine) Ipomoea sp. Convolvulaceae
alaa aguaje swamp palm Mauritia flexuosa Palmae
alaaeri caimitu yellow star apple (tree) Pouteria caimito Sapotaceae
alajtɕõo jergón South American lancehead snake Bothrops atrox
alau maquisapa spider monkey Ateles paniscus
alauihja pero caspi (type of tree)
alõori panguana tinamou (partridge) Crypturellus undulatus
anaahe uvos hog plum, yellow mombin (tree) Spondias mombin Anacardiaceae
anajsihje mucura anamu (herb) Petiveria alliacea Phytolaccaceae
anaue pichico tamarin (monkey) Saguinus spp.
arauata choro woolly monkey Lagothrix lagothricha
aresi ɲe mojara type of tetra (fish) Acestrocephalus boehlkei Characidae
atari paufil razor-billed curassow (bird) Crax mitu
auri paucar oriole type (bird) Psarocolius sp. Icteridae
baka isitɕi teta de vaca (type of plant) Solanum mammosum
ʤaruba vaca marina Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis
darane mojara (type of fish) related to Acestrocephalus boehlkei Characidae
duhwa cedro masha cancharana (tree) Cabralea sp. Meliaceae
ejtɕu cashapona stilt palm Socratea exorrhiza Palmae
elelia, elele chevón (type of tree)
enʉasoone nobia (type of catfish) Ageneiosus atronasus Auchenipteridae
esʉ shimbillo; guaba ice-cream bean (tree) Inga edulis Fabaceae
etoe musmuqui owl monkey Aotus nigriceps
fwafwafwa katʉ sapucho; sapo platano (type of banana) Musa sp.
fwafwafwa huapapa bird boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearius
fwanara lanahaj guineo (type of banana) Musa sp.
haja mullaca caspi (type of tree) Physalis angulata
hi ɲori ? (type of tree)
hiriri ɲo bagre (type of catfish) Pinirampus pirinampu Pimelodidae
hjaane achiote annatto (tree, herb) Bixa orellana Bixaceae
hjarana isana, caña brava arrow cane Gynerium sagittatum Graminae
itɕai saeha papa (type of tuber) Dioscorea trifida Dioscoreaceae
kahjaʉsi cortadera (type of herb) Scleria Cyperaceae
kajahuri cumala (type of tree) Myristicaceae - any type
kakʉri trompetero grey-winged trumpeter (bird) Psophia crepitans
kameranati guineo pindorito (type of banana)
kati mono negro dark capuchin monkey Cebus apella
kirimata boquichico tilapia (fish) Prochilodus Prochilodontidae
komokomo comocomo, garza blanca great egret Casmerodius alba
kukuri carachupa Southern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous unicinctus
kurari palometa; macane silver dollar (fish) Mylossoma/Metynnis/Myleus spp. Characidae
kuri jagua, sacha huito (type of tree) Tocoyena williamsii Rubiaceae
kwairi ayahuasca (type of liana) Banisteriopsis caapi Malpighiaceae
laano yuca cassava; manioc Manihot esculenta Euphorbiaceae
lerano macana (type of knifefish) Adontosternarchus balaenops
meseri cocona peach tomato (bush) Solanum sessiliflorum Solanaceae
nekwʉri puma garza rufescent tiger-heron Botaurus pinnatus, Tigrisoma lineatum
nekwʉʉri garabata (type of liana) similar to Uncaria spp. Rubiaceae
obana sajino collared peccary Pecari tajacu
ohwa huicungo (type of tree) Astrocaryum murumuru Palmae
raana huangana white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari
rihje pijuayo, pifayo peach palm Bactris gasipaes Palmae
risi ɲe chambira chambira palm Astrocaryum chambira Arecaceae
ruru coto red howler monkey Alouatta seniculus
siria dorado (type of catfish) Brachyplatystoma filamentosum Pimelodidae
suseri unchala grey-necked wood-rail (bird) Aramides cajanea
tariatɕa taricaya yellow-spotted river turtle Podocnemis unifilis
tururi llanchama (type of fig tree) Poulsenia annata Moraceae
urwari huitina arrowleaf (tuber) Xanthosoma sagittifolium Araceae
ʃabẽeto guayaba (type of tree) Psidium guajava Myrtaceae
ʃeremia pandisho, pan de árbol breadfruit tree Artocarpus altilis Moraceae
ʉkʉari oso hormiguero giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla
ʉkiasi renaco fig tree Ficus spp., Coussapoa]] spp. Moraceae
ʉnee kinkajou kinkajou Bassaricyon gabbii
ʉrerej otorongo panther Panthera onca

References

  1. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  2. ^ a b c Urarina at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Urarina". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "Urarina Indian Language". www.native-languages.org. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  5. ^ "WALS Online - Language Urarina". Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  6. ^ "WALS Online - Chapter Order of Subject, Object and Verb". Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Olawsky, Kurt (2007). "1: Introduction". A Grammar of Urarina. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-311-019020-5. ISSN 0933-7636.
  8. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  9. ^ Olawsky, Kurt (2007). A Grammar of Urarina. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-311-019020-5. ISSN 0933-7636.

Further reading

  • Olawsky, K. (2006). A Grammar of Urarina. (Mouton Grammar Library, 37). Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Wise, Mary Ruth. (1999). "Small Language Families and Isolates in Peru" in The Amazonian Languages. Dixon, R. M. W. and Aikhenvald, Alexandra (ed.)

This page was last updated at 2020-12-12 11:33, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari