Labiodental approximant Redirected from Voiced labiodental approximant

  (Redirected from Labiodental approximant)
Voiced labiodental approximant
IPA Number150
Entity (decimal)ʋ
Unicode (hex)U+028B
X-SAMPAP or v\
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Audio sample

The voiced labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter V. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\. With an advanced diacritic, ⟨ʋ̟⟩, this letter also indicates a bilabial approximant, though the diacritic is frequently omitted because no contrast is likely.[1][2]

The labiodental approximant is the typical realization of /v/ in the Indian and South African varieties of English. As the voiceless /f/ is also realized as an approximant ([ʋ̥]), it is also an example of a language contrasting voiceless and voiced labiodental approximants.[3]


Features of the voiced labiodental approximant:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[4] ոսկի [ʋɔski] 'gold'
Assyrian hawa‎ ܗܘܐ [hɑːʋɑ] 'wind' Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, [v] is used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Catalan Balearic treballava [t̪ɾəbəˈʎ̟aʋə] 'worked' Allophone of /v/.[5] See Catalan phonology
Valencian[5] [t̪ɾe̠bäˈʎ̟aʋä]
Chinese Mandarin / wèi [ʋêi] 'for' Prevalent in northern dialects. Corresponds to /w/ in other varieties.
Chuvash аван [aʋ'an] 'good, well' Corresponds to /w/ in other varieties.
Danish Standard[6] véd [ʋe̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ] 'know(s)' Also described as a short plosive [b̪̆]; rarely realized as a fricative [v] instead.[7] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard wang [ʋɑŋ] 'cheek' In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as bilabial [β̞]. See Dutch phonology
English Indian[3] vine [ʋaɪn] 'vine' Corresponds to a fricative [v] in other accents.
Some speakers red [ʋe̞d̥] 'red' Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal[8] (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization
Faroese[9] ða [ˈɹøːʋa] 'speech' Word-initial and intervocalic allophone of /v/. In the first case, it is in a free variation with a fricative [v].[9] See Faroese phonology
Finnish vauva [ˈʋɑu̯ʋɑ] 'baby' See Finnish phonology
German Standard was [ʋas] 'what' Post-consonantal allophone of /v/ for most speakers. Also used word-initially by some, especially in the South. See Standard German phonology.
Swiss Corresponds to /v/ in Standard German[10]
Guaraní avañe'ẽ [ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ] 'Guaraní language' Contrasts with /w/ and /ɰ/
Hawaiian wikiwiki [ʋikiʋiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi रुण [ʋəruɳ] 'Varuna' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Some speakers[11] raro [ˈʋäːʋo] 'rare' Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill [r], due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in Alto Adige (bordering with German-speaking Austria), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a uvular trill [ʀ] or a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ].[11] See Italian phonology.
Japanese Some speakers こんにちは / kon'nichiwa [k̠o̞ɲ̟ːic̟͡ɕiʋäʔ] "good afternoon, hello" Free variation of [ɰᵝ]. May be velarized [ʋˠ]/[ɰᶹ] or purely velar [ɰ]. Often bilabial with [β], [βˠ] and [β̞] being possible realizations. See Japanese phonology.
Lithuanian vanduo [ʋɐn̪d̪uə] 'water' See Lithuanian phonology.
Marathi जन [ʋə(d)zən] 'weight' See Marathi phonology
Miyako[12] [ʋ̩tɑ] 'thick' May be syllabic.
Norwegian Urban East[13][14] venn [ʋe̞nː] 'friend' Sometimes realized as a fricative [v].[14][15] See Norwegian phonology
Nsenga ŵanthu [ʋaⁿtʰu] 'people'
Punjabi ਵਾਲ [ʋäːl] 'hair'
Russian[16] волосы [ˈʋʷo̞ɫ̪əs̪ɨ̞] 'hair' Common realization of /v/; contrasts with palatalized form.[16] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian цврчак / cvrčak [t͡sʋř̩ːt͡ʃak] 'cricket' May also be realized as [v], depending on dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shona vanhu [ʋan̤u] 'people' Contrasts with /v/ and /w/.
Slovak[17] voda About this sound[ˈʋo̞dä]  'water' Usual realization of /v/.[17] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[18] veter [ˈʋéːtər] 'wind' Also described as fricative [v].[19][20] See Slovene phonology
Swedish Some speakers vän [ʋɛːn] 'friend' See Swedish phonology
Spanish[21] Chilean hablar [äˈʋläɾ] 'to speak' Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
Tamil வாய் [ʋɑj] 'mouth' See Tamil phonology
Ukrainian[22] він [ʋin] 'he' Possible prevocalic realization of /w/, most commonly before /i/.[22] See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian wêr [ʋɛːr] 'where' See West Frisian phonology

See also


  1. ^ Peter Ladefoged (1968) A Phonetic Study of West African Languages: An Auditory-instrumental Survey, p. 26.
  2. ^ Joyce Thambole Mogatse Mathangwane (1996), Phonetics and Phonology of Ikalanga: A Diachronic and Synchronic Study, vol. 1, p. 79
  3. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004:960)
  4. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  5. ^ a b Saborit Vilar (2009:52)
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:27 and 66)
  8. ^ Foulkes & Docherty (1999:?)
  9. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  10. ^ Schmid, Stephan (2010), Segmental features of Swiss German ethnolects, retrieved 2015-04-27
  11. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98–101.
  12. ^ Thomas Pellard, Why it is important to study the Ryukyuan languages Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine (presentation)
  13. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:22 and 25)
  14. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  15. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  16. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:223)
  17. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  18. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  19. ^ Priestley (2002:394)
  20. ^ Greenberg (2006:18)
  21. ^ "El alófono labiodental sonoro [v] del fonema /b/ en el castellano de Concepción (Chile): Una investigación exploratoria" (PDF).
  22. ^ a b Žovtobrjux & Kulyk (1965:121–122)


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199229314.
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard J., eds. (1999), Urban Voices, Arnold
  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953–963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Priestley, T.M.S. (2002), "Slovene", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 388–451, ISBN 0-415-28078-8
  • Saborit Vilar, Josep (2009), Millorem la pronúncia, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395
  • Žovtobrjux, M.A.; Kulyk, B.M. (1965), Kurs sučasnoji ukrajins'koji literaturnoji movy. Častyna I., Kiev: Radjans’ka škola

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