wanweipedia

Wari’ language

  (Redirected from Wari’ language)
Wariʼ
Native toBrazil
RegionRondônia
EthnicityWariʼ people
Native speakers
2,700 (2006)[1]
Chapacuran
  • Wari languages
    • Wariʼ
Language codes
ISO 639-3pav
Glottologwari1268
ELPWari'
Chapakuran languages.png
Location of the Chapacuran Language family
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Wariʼ language (also Orowari, Wari, Pacaá Novo, Pacaás Novos, Pakaa Nova, Pakaásnovos) is the sole remaining vibrant language of the Chapacuran language family of the Brazilian–Bolivian border region of the Amazon. It has about 2,700 speakers, also called Wariʼ, who live along tributaries of the Pacaas Novos river in Western Brazil. The word wariʼ means "we!" in the Wariʼ language and is the term given to the language and tribe by its speakers.[2]

Wariʼ is written in Latin script.

Dialects

Wariʼ dialects listed by Angenot (1997):[3]

Northern dialects
  • Wari’-Oro Waram
  • Wari’-Oro Mon
  • Wari’-Oro Waram Xijen
Southern dialects
  • Wari’-Oro Não
  • Wari’-Oro Eo
  • Wari’-Oro At
  • Wari’-Oro Jowin
  • Wari’-Oro Kao Oro Aje

Phonology

None of the segments described below only occur in borrowed words or only in specific word classes. There are some sounds not listed which are only used in onomatopoeia and can violate the usual phonotactic and phonological constraints.

Consonants

The Oro Nao dialect of Wariʼ as described by Everett & Kern (1997) has the following consonant phonemes. It is a relatively large inventory by Lowland Amazonian standards. The angled brackets represent the spellings associated with each sound.

Bilabial Dental Post-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Plain Labial Plain Labial
Nasal m <m> n <n>
Stop p <p> t <t> k <c, qu> <cw> ʔ <'>
Affricate t͡ʃ <x>
Fricative h <h> hʷ <hw>
Approximant j <j> w <w>
Flap ɾ <r>

/t͡ʙ̥/ is a trilled affricate made up of a bilabial trill preceded by a dental stop, and is only reported from four other languages. In Oro Nao, this has been analysed as an allophone of /t/ that only occurs before /o/ and /y/ which does not occur in every idiolect. In some dialects it is a separate phoneme; however, only about 24 words contain the sound, some of which are onomatopoeic. It also is used more by older speakers of the language.

Consonant Alternations[4]

  • /t͡ʃ/ can become [ʃ], with a tendency to surface as [ʃ] more before unrounded vowels than rounded ones: xaxi' na 'he is thin' can be [t͡ʃaˈt͡ʃiʔ na] or [ʃaˈʃiʔ na].
  • [m] can become [mb] (a sequence of the bilabial nasal followed by the voiced bilabial stop) syllable initially, most frequently before /a/ but also before other vowels. The tendency to realise it as a sequence is greater if the syllable is stressed: its filth <homiri> can be [homiˈɾi] or [hombiˈɾi].
  • [n] can become [nd] (a sequence of the voiced alveolar nasal followed the voiced alveolar stop) syllable initially, most frequently before /a/ but also before other vowels. The tendency to realise it as a sequence is greater if the syllable is stressed: my head <wina> can be [wiˈna] or [wiˈnda].
  • [j] can become [ʒ] before /i/: let's go! <maji> can be [maˈji] or [maˈʒi].
  • [ʔj] can become [ʔd͡ʒ] word initially: I am afraid <jin' 'ina> can be [ˈʔjinʔ ʔiˌna] or [ˈʔd͡ʒinʔ ʔiˌna].

Vowels

Wariʼ has one of the world's most asymmetrical vowel systems. Vowels are generally expected to be somewhat evenly distributed in the vowel space, not bunched into a corner. Additionally, vowels are expected to be unrounded when front and rounded when back until "gaps" in the vowel system have been filled. Although Wariʼ has only six vowels, four of these are close/close-mid front vowels, of which two are rounded (although /ø/ is uncommon). Non-native speakers have marked difficulty in distinguishing these front vowels, that contrast with only a single back vowel /o/.

Front Back
Unround Round Round
Close (High) i <i> y <u>
Close-mid e <e> ø <ö> o <o>
Open (Low) a <a>

Vowel nasalisation occurs on diphthongs only; the few which are not nasalised all end in /i/. The following diphthongs occur in the Oro Nao dialect: [ẽĩ], [ãĩ], [aɪ], [õĩ], [oɪ], [ỹĩ], [ĩõ], [ẽõ], [ãõ].

Vowel Alternations[4]

  • [i] can become [ɪ] in unstressed syllables if the vowel in the vowel in the following syllable is [i]: it is rocking <piquirim na> can be [pikiˈɾim na] or [pɪkɪˈɾim na].
  • /e/ becomes [ɛ] before all stops other than [ʔ], and in unstressed syllables in harmony with /e/ becoming [ɛ] in the stressed syllable: day <xec> is [t͡ʃɛk] because of the [k], and they went out <hwerehwet mama' nana> is [hʷɛɾɛˌhʷɛt maˈmaʔ naˌna] because the [t] in the stressed syllable causes /e/ to become [ɛ] and the preceding ones change in harmony.
  • /e/ becomes [ɪ] before nasals, and in harmony with a /e/ becoming [ɪ] in the stressed syllable: it is numb <teteren na> is [tɪtɪˈɾɪn na].
  • [o] can become [ʊ] in unstressed syllables when the vowel in the stressed syllable is not [o]: its seed <tocoi> can be [toˈkʷi] or [tʊˈkʷi].
  • [ø] is a rare segment and for some speakers is evolving into [e] in open syllables and [y] in closed ones.

Syllables

The basic syllable in Wari' is CV(C), but suffixes can be of the form VC, VCVC or V. Only stops and nasals can occur in syllable codas. Consonant clusters are rare: /n/ is the only first segment found, and /t/, /k/ and /t͡ʃ/ are the only second segments found in non-compound words.

Wariʼ has words ending in the consonant clusters /mʔ/ and /nʔ/. These have been analysed as single sounds, but apparently only to avoid complicating syllable structure. If these are separate phonemes, these clusters only occur word finally.

In the Oro Nao dialect, many consonants alternate with [ʔC] at the beginning of monosyllabic words, and [ʔ] always precedes word initial semivowels ([j] and [w]), including in polysyllabic words. There is a correlation between words that begin [ʔC] in Oro Nao and words that begin [ʔaC] in other dialects. For example, 'water' is <com> [ʔkom] in Oro Nao and <'acom> [ʔaˈkom] in other dialects. Loss of this initial syllable is a potential explanation of why these words have variants that break the phonotactic rules. However, these generalisations do not always hold; for instance 'thorn' <pi> [ʔpi] is pronounced the same in all dialects.

Stress

The final syllable of words in major lexical categories is stressed. The verb tends to take the primary stress, with secondary stress on the others. However, emphasis of a particular word can cause transfer of the primary stress.

Morphology

Wariʼ is a largely analytic language, which has almost no verbal inflection but many derivational processes.

Possession

Wariʼ has two main classes of nouns, xiʼ nouns (named as such because their citation form ends with the suffix /-xiʼ/) and non-xiʼ nouns. Xiʼ nouns are inalienably possessed, and therefore have a paradigm of possession marking suffixes.

Singular Plural
First Inclusive Exclusive
-xiʼ -xut
Second -m -huʼ
Third Masculine -con -cocon
Third Feminine -cam -camam
Third Neuter -in (only nouns referring to humans trigger number agreement)

Some forms have allomorphs, especially when following stems that ends in the vowel [e], for instance -con becomes -cun and -cam becomes -quem.

There is also a paradigm of nominal inflectional clitics that inflect for person, number and third person gender. These are used to show possession of a non-xiʼ noun.

Singular Plural
First ne Inclusive Exclusive
nexiʼ nuxut
Second nem nuhuʼ
Third Masculine nucun nucucun
Third Feminine nequem nequequem
Third Neuter nein

Most xiʼ nouns have alternate forms which cannot be possessed. To signify possession of these forms, you must use the inalienable xiʼ counterparts. For example, to convey the meaning 'his bone or leg', you would need to use the xiʼ form of the noun (araxiʼ) with the third person masculine singular ending.You cannot use the nonpossessed form of the noun ('at) with the third person masculine singular nominal inflectional clitic.

'aracon

bone-3sm

'aracon

bone-3sm

'his bone or leg'

*'at

bone

nucun

poss:3sm

*'at nucun

bone poss:3sm

'his bone or leg'

Reduplication

Verbs

There is no affixation at all on verbs, but reduplication is used to mark aspect. Plural forms are derived by partial reduplication of the CV from the stressed syllable. This can either be a CV(CV) pattern, (where the second is optional) usually for transitive verbs: wac 'cut', wawac 'cut' (plural); cao' 'eat', cacacao' 'eat' (plural). A CVrV pattern is usually used for intransitive verbs: cat 'break' (intr), caracat 'break' (plural). About a third of plural forms are derived by each of these types of reduplication, and the final third by suppletion.

Nouns

Reduplication of nouns can derive names or descriptive terms. Thus capija capija (mouth-1s) means 'talker', and Towira Towira (testicles-1s) means 'legendary character who has enlarged testicles'.

Clitics

Wariʼ has both verbal and nominal inflectional clitics, which are analysed as such and not affixes for a few reasons. Verbal inflectional clitics can occur as whole utterances as responses, as the referent is clear from the previous statement. They also do not undergo the phonological processes that you would expect if they were suffixes to the main verb, for instance they do not take the primary stress, which the possessive suffixes do when they attach to xiʼ nouns.

Verbal inflectional clitics are inflected for person, number, tense, third person gender (only if tenseless), voice, and contain both the subject and the object of the verb. Where there is more than one object, the clitic represents one object based on the semantic roles present in the following hierarchy: GOAL>CIRCUMSTANCE>THEME>BENEFACTIVE>COMITATIVE>LOCATION>TIME.

Morphophonological Processes

Wariʼ has three types of assimilatory process - regressive (or anticipatory), progressive (or preservative) and coalescent. This mainly occurs across word-initial morpheme boundaries.

Regressive assimilation occurs at morpheme boundaries involving consonants, where the consonant of the suffix causes a change in the consonant of the stem. This happens when xiʼ nouns with stems that end in -ji inflect for third person masculine or feminine, as the /k/ in the suffix causes the /y/ in the stem to become /ts/: taraji- 'ear' + -con '3sm' = taraxicon 'his ear'

Progressive assimilation occurs over morpheme boundaries between nasal consonants or diphthongs and voiceless stops. This type of assimilation is optional but common in normal speech, however does not seem to appear in careful speech: Mon te? 'Where is my father?' can be pronounced as either [mon'de] or [mon'te].

Coalescence is the most common assimilatory process, which is often accompanied by regressive vowel harmony. There are three principles which guide the output of vowel coalescence.

  1. If one of the two vowels is a back vowel, the output vowel will be a back vowel: xiri- 'house' + -u '1s' = xuru 'my house'
  2. The output vowel will have the height of the highest vowel of the two input vowels: toco- 'eye' + -um '2s' = tucum 'their eyes'
  3. If the input vowels are identical, the output vowel is identical (this only occurs with /i/+/i/ in the corpus collected by Everett and Kern (1997)).

Syntax

Basic constituent order in Wariʼ is deemed to be VOS, although it is uncommon to have multiple expressed constituents. Often arguments to the verb are indicated by the agreement affixes which form the verbal inflectional clitics, where the subject affix precedes the one for the object. A third person object or subject can either be overtly marked or just referenced in the inflectional clitic, first and second person can only be marked by the clitic. The conventions followed for glosses are those used by Everett & Kern (1997). In the examples given, the tense and mood is realis past/present, glossed as rp/p.

Mao

go:s

na.

3s:rp/p

Mao na.

go:s 3s:rp/p

'He went.'

Mao

go:s

na

3s:rp/p

Orowao.

m:name

Mao na Orowao.

go:s 3s:rp/p m:name

'Orowao went.'

Mao

go:s

'ina.

1s:rp/p

Mao 'ina.

go:s 1s:rp/p

'I went'

*Mao

go:s

'ina

1s:rp/p

wata'.

emph:1s

*Mao 'ina wata'.

go:s 1s:rp/p emph:1s

'I went.'

A verb can have up to four arguments, but it is uncommon to express more than one at a time. Instances of three or more arguments being expressed usually only come from elicited examples.

COMP sentences

COMP sentences are referred to as such by Everett and Kern (1996) because their initial position is occupied by what they refer to as a COMP or complementizer word. These give the sentence – or a variable in the sentence – a particular interpretation.

For a sentence to be a COMP sentence, it must have a COMP word in the initial position, an inflectional morpheme closely following which gives information about tense, mood, and sometimes gender, and a tenseless verbal inflectional clitic following the verb.

Here is a list of the COMP words found in the Oro Nao dialect.

COMP word Morphological composition Function Example sentence
ma' demonstrative 'that:prox:hearer' interrogation

Ma'

COMP

co

INFL:m/frp/p

tomi'

speak

na?

3s:rp/p

Ma' co tomi' na?

COMP INFL:m/frp/p speak 3s:rp/p

'Who is speaking?'

mon ma'+-on '3sm object' interrogation (masculine)

Mon

COMP

tarama'

man

co

INFL:m/frp/p

mao

go:s

nain

3s:rp/p-3n

Guajará?

place:name

Mon tarama' co mao nain Guajará?

COMP man INFL:m/frp/p go:s 3s:rp/p-3n place:name

'Which man went to Guajará?'

mam ma'+-m '3sf object' interrogation (feminine)

Mam

COMP

narima

woman

co

INFL:m/frp/p

xain

hot

na?

3srp/p

Mam narima co xain na?

COMP woman INFL:m/frp/p hot 3srp/p

'Which woman has a fever?'

main ma'+-in '3n object' interrogation (neuter)

Main

COMP

ca

INFL:nrp/p

mao

go:s

ca?

3sm

Main ca mao ca?

COMP INFL:nrp/p go:s 3sm

'Where did he go?'

'om verb 'to not exist' negation

'Om

COMP

ca

INFL:nrp/p

mao

go:s

ca.

3sm

'Om ca mao ca.

COMP INFL:nrp/p go:s 3sm

'He did not go.'

mo verb 'list presentation' condition

Mo

COMP

xi

INFL:irr

pi'am

sleep

cacama.

3pf

Mo xi pi'am cacama.

COMP INFL:irr sleep 3pf

'If they slept.'

'ac preverbal modifier 'like' indication of resemblance

'Ac

COMP

ca

INFL:nrp/p

mao

go:s

cama

3sf

na.

3s:rp/p

'Ac ca mao cama na.

COMP INFL:nrp/p go:s 3sf 3s:rp/p

'It seems like she went.'

je emphatic pronoun '3n' affirmation/interrogation

Je

COMP

'i

n

ca'

this:n

ca

INFL:nrp/p

tomi'

speak

cocon

3sm-3pm

Xijam.

m:name

Je 'i ca' ca tomi' cocon Xijam.

COMP n this:n INFL:nrp/p speak 3sm-3pm m:name

'This is what Xijam said to them.'

'ane verb 'to be different' contraexpectation

'Ane

COMP

ca

INFL:nrp/p

wari'

person

'iri'

1pincl

ca'

this:n

ne.

rec:past

'Ane ca wari' 'iri' ca' ne.

COMP INFL:nrp/p person 1pincl this:n rec:past

'But/because we are people.'

cain' demonstrative 'that neuter distal' interrogation

Cain'

COMP

ca

INFL:nrp/p

tomi'

speak

cama?

3sf

Cain' ca tomi' cama?

COMP INFL:nrp/p speak 3sf

'What did she say?'

pain prepostition '3n' subordination

Tomi'

speak

xaxa'

distractedly

'urut

1pexcl:rp/p

pain

COMP

ca

INFL:nrp/p

cono'

die:p

cacama

3pf

xuruxut

siblings-1pexcl

pane.

rem:past

Tomi' xaxa' 'urut pain ca cono' cacama xuruxut pane.

speak distractedly 1pexcl:rp/p COMP INFL:nrp/p die:p 3pf siblings-1pexcl rem:past

'We are sad because our brothers died.'

Copular Sentences

Wariʼ does not have a copula verb, so sentences that would use this instead have what would be the adjective become the verb.

Tamara'

man

na'

3s:rp/p

pije'.

child

Tamara' na' pije'.

man 3s:rp/p child

'The baby is male.' (literally 'The baby mans.')

Wijimain

smallness-3n

na

3s:rp/p

xirim.

house

Wijimain na xirim.

smallness-3n 3s:rp/p house

'The house is small.' (literally 'The house smalls.')

Hwap

fast:s

na

3s:rp/p

pije'.

child

Hwap na pije'.

fast:s 3s:rp/p child

'The child is fast.' (literally 'The child fasts.')

Definiteness

Wariʼ does not have any articles. Definiteness or indefiniteness can be expressed by either the use of demonstratives or verbal inflectional clitics containing the object. However this latter option does not always distinguish definiteness, as indefinite objects can also be marked in the inflectional clitics.

Cao'

eat

'ina

1s:rp/p

hwam.

fish

Cao' 'ina hwam.

eat 1s:rp/p fish

'I ate fish.' (Indefinite)

Cao'

eat

'inon

1s:rp/p-3sm

hwam.

fish

Cao' 'inon hwam.

eat 1s:rp/p-3sm fish

'I ate (the) fish.' (Ambiguous)

Cao'

eat

'inon

1s:rp/p-3sm

hwam

fish

cwa'.

this:m/f

Cao' 'inon hwam cwa'.

eat 1s:rp/p-3sm fish this:m/f

'I ate this fish.' (Definite)

References

  1. ^ Wariʼ at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Wari". www.native-languages.org. Retrieved 2020-01-28.
  3. ^ Angenot, Geralda de Lima (1997). Fonotática e Fonologia do Lexema Protochapacura. M.A. dissertation, Universidade Federal de Rondônia.
  4. ^ a b Everett, Daniel L. Wari : the Pacaas Novos Language of Western Brazil. ISBN 978-0-203-19332-7. OCLC 1048248320.
  • Mily Crevels (2012). Language Endangerment in South America: The Clock is Ticking In Lyle Campbell & Verónica Grondona. (Eds.).The indigenous languages of south america : A comprehensive guide. (pp. 167-234).
  • Daniel Everett and Barbara Kern (1997). Wariʼ: The Pacaas Novos language of western Brazil. London: Routledge.
  • Peter Ladefoged and Daniel Everett (1996). The status of phonetic rarities. Language, 72 (4), 794-800.
  • Margaret MacEachern, Barbara Kern, Peter Ladefoged (1996). "Wariʼ phonetic structures". In UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 93: Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages IV.

External links


This page was last updated at 2021-07-07 17:04, update this pageView original page

All information on this site, including but not limited to text, pictures, etc., are reproduced on Wikipedia (wikipedia.org), following the . Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License


Top

If the math, chemistry, physics and other formulas on this page are not displayed correctly, please useFirefox or Safari