wanweipedia

Witotoan languages

Witotoan
Huitotoan
Geographic
distribution
northwestern Amazon
Linguistic classificationindependent family or Bora–Witoto
  • Witotoan
Glottologhuit1251

Witotoan (also Huitotoan or Uitotoan, occasionally known as Huitoto–Ocaina to distinguish it from Bora–Witoto) is a small language family of southwestern Colombia (Amazonas Department) and the neighbouring region of Peru.

Genetic relations

Aschmann (1993) proposed that the Boran and Witotoan language families were related, in a Bora–Witoto stock. Echeverri & Seifart (2016) refute the connection.

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Pijao, Yaruro, Arawak, Bora-Muinane, Choko, and Tukano language families due to contact. Some of this contact occurred had due to the expansion of Witotoan speakers down the Putumayo River.[1]

Family division

  • Ocaina (also rendered Okaina)
  • Witoto Proper
    • Nïpode (also known as Nüpode, Nipode Huitoto, Nipode Witoto, Witoto Muinane, Muinane Huitoto, Muiname)
    • Mïnïca–Murai
      • Mïnïca (also known as Witoto Meneca, Meneca, Meneka, Noaiko-Muína, Southern Witoto, Minica Huitoto, Minica)
      • Murui (also known as Witoto Murui, Murai, Búe, Murai Huitoto, Bue, Huitoto, Central Witoto proper, Komïne)
  • Nonuya (also known as Nyonuhu, Nonuña, Achote, Achiote) Loreto, Peru

The classification above is based on Campbell (1997), who follows Richard Aschmann's 1993 classification and reconstruction of proto-Witotoan.

Nonuya is nearly extinct, but attempts are being made at revival.

The following extinct languages are unclassified within Witotoan:

  • Andoquero (also known as Andokero, Miranya-Karapana-Tapuyo, Miraña, Carapana) Amazonas, Colombia (†)
  • Coeruna (also known as Koeruna) Amazonas, Brazil (†)
  • Koihoma (also known as Coto, Koto, Orejón, Coixoma) Loreto, Peru (†)
  • Hairúya (†)[2]

Kaufman (2007) adds Andoque.

Synonymy note:

  • The name Muiname has been used to refer to the Muinane language (Bora Muinane) of the Boran family and also to the Nipode language (Witoto Muinane) of the Huitotoan family.
  • The names Koto, Coto, and Orejón have been used to refer to the Koihoma language (Coixoma) and also to the unrelated Orejón language (also known as Koto or Coto) of the Tucanoan language family.

Mason (1950)

Internal classification of the Witotoan languages by Mason (1950):[3]

  • Witoto
    • Kaime (Caimo)
    • Xúra
    • Séueni
    • Jayruya
    • Mekka: Yaboyano
    • Menekka
    • Búe
    • Ifikuene-Caimito (?)
  • Miranyan, Boran
    • Miranya-Carapana-Tapuyo
    • Nonuya (Achiote)
    • Ocaina-Muenane
    • Ocaina (Ducaiya); Fitita (?)
    • Muenane
  • Southeastern
    • Orejón
    • Coeruna (?)
  • Andoke (?)
    • North: Araracuara
    • South
  • Resigero (?)

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Witotoan language varieties.[4]

gloss Northern
Uitoto
Central
Uitoto
Southern
Uitoto
Caimito Hairúya Orejone Ocaina Nonuya Andoquero Coeruna Muinane
one dane daxe dákede dáhe tiamaːma daːʔamü tsätsaːma
two mena nemaxe ménade ménahe mamatiáma münaːʔamhüy inaːma
three daxéámani maní daheámani dáheámani taüuefuóro tsahiːnwá
head i-fogo i-foke ö-foge ex-fóge huha opórin o-phühõehe gö-hókö ko-pia
eye uizi uise óise uise oi oxuöd o-wtsʔá ge-usö koya-asá
tooth i-sido i-sidoʔo i-sído ix-síde a-tídyo atítyo o-tihido ge-sühi ku-irí ítie
man nokae ima öima komuinä yiza komä oːe thimáe üaimé
water hainoy xinuy hainoé hánenoi änoe ñióxi nohowi nóhwi nüho
fire boʔodöno raike raike réke räkö táro thítseho äitha
maize becha pechato pedzyato pechato kobé kobéto
jaguar kiko xiko hökö hirásitä hituidé hüko hoʔoko ökó öighó
house xofoe fofo hofo hofo hofo huaho póho woːhoː náisa hopo

References

  1. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  2. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír. 1949. Sur Quelques Langues Inconnues de l'Amerique du Sud. Lingua Posnaniensis I: 53-82.
  3. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  4. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

Bibliography

  • Aschmann, Richard P. (1993). Proto Witotoan. Publications in linguistics (No. 114). Arlington, TX: SIL & the University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Echeverri, Juan Alvaro & Frank Seifart. (2016). Proto-Witotoan: A re-evaluation of the distant genealogical relationship between the Boran and Witotoan linguistic families.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.

External links


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