万维百科英文版

World War I

Jump to search
World War I
WWImontage.jpg
Clockwise from the top:
Date28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (1914-07-28 – 1918-11-11)
(4 years, 3 months and 2 weeks)
Location
Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China, Indian Ocean, North and South Atlantic Ocean
Result

Allied victory

Territorial
changes
Belligerents
Allied Powers:
 France
Central Powers:
Commanders and leaders
Strength
Total: 42,950,000[1]
  • Russian Empire 12,000,000
  • British Empire 8,842,000[2][3]
  • French Third Republic 8,660,000[4]
  • Kingdom of Italy 5,615,000
  • United States 4,744,000
  • Empire of Japan 800,000
  • Kingdom of Serbia 707,000
  • Kingdom of Romania 658,000
  • Belgium 380,000
  • Kingdom of Greece 250,000
  • First Portuguese Republic 80,000
  • Kingdom of Montenegro 50,000
Total: 25,248,000[1]
  • German Empire 13,250,000
  • Austria-Hungary 7,800,000
  • Ottoman Empire 2,998,000
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000
68,208,000 (Total all)
Casualties and losses
  • Military dead: 5,525,000
  • Military wounded: 12,832,000
  • Total: 18,357,000 KIA, WIA and MIA
  • Civilian dead: 4,000,000

further details...


Military deaths by country[5][6]

  • Russian Empire 1,811,000
  • French Third Republic 1,398,000
  • British Empire 1,115,000
  • Kingdom of Italy 651,000
  • Kingdom of Romania 250,000–335,000
  • Kingdom of Serbia 275,000
  • United States 117,000
  • Belgium 59,000–88,000
  • Kingdom of Greece 26,000
  • First Portuguese Republic 7,000
  • Kingdom of Montenegro 3,000
  • Empire of Japan <1,000
  • Military dead: 4,386,000
  • Military wounded: 8,388,000
  • Total: 12,774,000 KIA, WIA and MIA
  • Civilian dead: 3,700,000

further details...


Military deaths by country[5]

  • German Empire 2,051,000
  • Austria-Hungary 1,200,000
  • Ottoman Empire 772,000
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria 88,000
World War I: Mobilized forces per total population (in %)[citation needed]

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars",[7] it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history.[8][9] It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history,[10] with an estimated nine million combatant deaths and 13 million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war,[11] while resulting genocides and the related 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 17–100 million deaths worldwide.[12][13]

On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis.[14][15] In response, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, and the two moved to a war footing.

A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe. By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente, consisting of France, Russia, and Britain; and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April 1915, when it joined the Allied Powers after its relations with Austria-Hungary deteriorated.[16] Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia, and approved partial mobilisation after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on 28July.[17] Full Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30July; the following day, Austria-Hungary and Germany did the same, while Germany demanded Russia demobilise within twelve hours.[18] When Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on Russia on 1August in support of Austria-Hungary, the latter following suit on 6August; France ordered full mobilisation in support of Russia on 2August.[19]

Germany's strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to rapidly concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within six weeks, then shift forces to the East before Russia could fully mobilise; this was later known as the Schlieffen Plan.[20] On 2August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France.[21] When this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3August and declared war on France the same day; the Belgian government invoked the 1839 Treaty of London and, in compliance with its obligations under this treaty, Britain declared war on Germany on 4August. On 12 August, Britain and France also declared war on Austria-Hungary; on 23August, Japan sided with Britain, seizing German possessions in China and the Pacific. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in (and drew upon) each power's colonial empire also, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe. The Entente and its allies eventually became known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies became known as the Central Powers.

The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a war of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917 (the Eastern Front, by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory). In 1915, Italy joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States initially remained neutral, though even while neutral it became an important supplier of war materiel to the Allies. Eventually, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the declaration by Germany that its navy would resume unrestricted attacks on neutral shipping, and the revelation that Germany was trying to incite Mexico to initiate war against the United States, the U.S. declared war on Germany on 6April 1917. Trained American forces did not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force ultimately reached some two million troops.[22]

Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, and Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918. The 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent with the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. Germany now controlled much of eastern Europe and transferred large numbers of combat troops to the Western Front. Using new tactics, the German March 1918 Offensive was initially successful. The Allies fell back and held. The last of the German reserves were exhausted as 10,000 fresh American troops arrived every day. The Allies drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive, a continual series of attacks to which the Germans had no reply.[23] One by one the Central Powers quit. First Bulgaria, then the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian empire. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, and the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the fighting.

World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world. The war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous revolutions and uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, France, the United States, and Italy) imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, the most well known being the German peace treaty: the Treaty of Versailles.[24] Ultimately, as a result of the war, the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian Empires ceased to exist, and numerous new states were created from their remains. However, despite the conclusive Allied victory (and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future wars), a second world war followed just over twenty years later.

Names

The term "world war" was first used in September 1914 by German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared 'European War' ... will become the first world war in the full sense of the word,"[25] citing a wire service report in The Indianapolis Star on 20 September 1914.

Prior to World War II, the events of 1914–1918 were generally known as the Great War or simply the World War.[26][27] In October 1914, the Canadian magazine Maclean's wrote, "Some wars name themselves. This is the Great War."[28] Contemporary Europeans also referred to it as "the war to end war" or "the war to end all wars" due to their perception of its then-unparalleled scale and devastation.[29] After World WarII began in 1939, the terms became more standard, with British Empire historians, including Canadians, favouring "The First World War" and Americans "World WarI".[30]

Background

Political and military alliances

Map of Europe focusing on Austria-Hungary and marking central location of ethnic groups in it including Slovaks, Czechs, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Romanians, Ukrainians, Poles.
Rival military coalitions in 1914: Triple Entente in green; Triple Alliance in brown. Only the Triple Alliance was a formal "alliance"; the others listed were informal patterns of support.

For much of the 19th century, the major European powers had tried to maintain a tenuous balance of power among themselves, resulting in a complex network of political and military alliances.[31] The biggest challenges to this were Britain's withdrawal into so-called splendid isolation, the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the post-1848 rise of Prussia under Otto von Bismarck. Victory in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War established Prussian hegemony in Germany, while victory over France in the 1870–1871 Franco-Prussian War unified the German states into a German Reich under Prussian leadership. French desire for revenge over the defeat of 1871, known as revanchism, and the recovery of Alsace-Lorraine became a principal object of French policy for the next forty years (see French–German enmity).[32]

In 1873, to isolate France and avoid a war on two fronts, Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany. Concerned by Russia's victory in the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War and its influence in the Balkans, the League was dissolved in 1878, with Germany and Austria-Hungary subsequently forming the 1879 Dual Alliance; this became the Triple Alliance when Italy joined in 1882.[33][34]

The practical details of these alliances were limited, since their primary purpose was to ensure cooperation between the three Imperial Powers, and to isolate France. Attempts by Britain in 1880 to resolve colonial tensions with Russia and diplomatic moves by France led to Bismarck reforming the League in 1881.[35] When the League finally lapsed in 1887, it was replaced by the Reinsurance Treaty, a secret agreement between Germany and Russia to remain neutral if either were attacked by France or Austria-Hungary.

In 1890, the new German Emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II, forced Bismarck to retire and was persuaded not to renew the Reinsurance Treaty by the new Chancellor, Leo von Caprivi.[36] This allowed France to counteract the Triple Alliance with the Franco-Russian Alliance of 1894 and the 1904 Entente Cordiale with Britain, while in 1907 Britain and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention. The agreements did not constitute formal alliances, but by settling long-standing colonial disputes, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility. These interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente.[37] British backing of France against Germany during the Second Moroccan Crisis in 1911 reinforced the Entente between the two countries (and with Russia as well) and increased Anglo-German estrangement, deepening the divisions that would erupt in 1914.[38]

Arms race

SMS Rheinland, a Nassau-class battleship, Germany's first response to the British Dreadnought

The creation of the German Reich following victory in the 1871 Franco-Prussian War led to a massive increase in Germany's economic and industrial strength. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and Wilhelm II, who became Emperor in 1890, sought to use that to create a Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial German Navy to compete with Britain's Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.[39] In doing so, they were influenced by US naval strategist Alfred Mahan, who argued possession of a blue-water navy was vital for global power projection; Tirpitz translated his books into German and Wilhelm made them required reading.[40] However, it was also driven by Wilhelm's admiration of the Royal Navy and desire to outdo it.[41]

This resulted in the Anglo-German naval arms race but the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906 gave the Royal Navy a technological advantage over its German rival, which they never lost.[39] Ultimately, the race diverted huge resources to creating a German navy large enough to antagonise Britain, but not defeat it. In 1911, Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg acknowledged defeat, leading to the Rüstungswende or ‘armaments turning point', when Germany switched expenditure from the navy to the army.[42]

This was driven by Russia's recovery from the 1905 Revolution, specifically increased investment post 1908 in railways and infrastructure in its western border regions. Germany and Austria-Hungary relied on faster mobilisation to compensate for fewer numbers; it was concern at the closing of this gap that led to the end of the naval race, rather than a reduction in tension elsewhere. When Germany expanded its standing army by 170,000 men in 1913, France extended compulsory military service from two to three years; similar measures taken by the Balkan powers and Italy led to increased expenditure by the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary. Absolute figures are hard to calculate, due to differences in categorising expenditure, while they often omit civilian infrastructure projects with a military use, such as railways. However, from 1908 to 1913, defence spending by the six major European powers increased by over 50% in real terms.[43]

Conflicts in the Balkans

Photo of large white building with one signs saying "Moritz Schiller" and another in Arabic; in front is a cluster of people looking at poster on the wall.
Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908

In October 1908, Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908–1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878. This angered the Kingdom of Serbia and its patron, the Pan-Slavic and Orthodox Russian Empire. The Balkans came to be known as the "powder keg of Europe".[44] The Italo-Turkish War in the 1911–1912 was a significant precursor of the World War I as it sparked nationalism in the Balkan states and paved the way for the Balkan Wars.[45]

In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian state while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913, it sparked the 33-day Second Balkan War, by the end of which it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece, and Southern Dobruja to Romania, further destabilising the region.[46] The Great Powers were able to keep these Balkan conflicts contained, but the next one would spread throughout Europe and beyond.

Prelude

Sarajevo assassination

This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some[47][48] believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. A group of six assassins (Cvjetko Popović, Gavrilo Princip, Muhamed Mehmedbašić, Nedeljko Čabrinović, Trifko Grabež, and Vaso Čubrilović) from the Yugoslavist group Mlada Bosna, supplied with arms by the Serbian Black Hand, gathered on the street where the Archduke's motorcade was to pass, with the intention of assassinating him. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces, which Austria-Hungary had annexed from the Ottoman Empire, so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia.

Čabrinović threw a grenade at the car but missed. Some nearby were injured by the blast, but Ferdinand's convoy carried on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them.

About an hour later, when Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital with those wounded in the assassination attempt, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where, by coincidence, Princip stood. With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Although they were reportedly not personally close, the Emperor Franz Joseph was profoundly shocked and upset. The reaction among the people in Austria, however, was mild, almost indifferent. As historian Zbyněk Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday (28 and 29 June), the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened."[49][50] Nevertheless, the political effect of the murder of the heir to the throne was significant, and was described by historian Christopher Clark on the BBC Radio4 series Month of Madness as a "9/11 effect, a terrorist event charged with historic meaning, transforming the political chemistry in Vienna."[51]

Expansion of violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914

The Austro-Hungarian authorities encouraged the subsequent anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, in which Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks killed two Bosnian Serbs and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings.[52][53] Violent actions against ethnic Serbs were also organised outside Sarajevo, in other cities in Austro-Hungarian-controlled Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia. Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5,500 prominent Serbs, 700 to 2,200 of whom died in prison. A further 460 Serbs were sentenced to death. A predominantly Bosniak special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.[54][55][56][57]

July Crisis

The assassination led to a month of diplomatic manoeuvring between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France and Britain, called the July Crisis. Austria-Hungary correctly believed that Serbian officials (especially the officers of the Black Hand) were involved in the plot to murder the Archduke, and wanted to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia.[58] On 23July, Austria-Hungary delivered to Serbia the July Ultimatum, a series of ten demands that were made intentionally unacceptable, in an effort to provoke a war with Serbia.[59] Serbia decreed general mobilisation on 25July. Serbia accepted all the terms of the ultimatum except for article six, which demanded that Austrian delegates be allowed in Serbia for the purpose of participation in the investigation into the assassination.[60] Following this, Austria broke off diplomatic relations with Serbia and, the next day, ordered a partial mobilisation. Finally, on 28 July 1914, a month after the assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed in 1908.

On 25July, Russia, in support of Serbia, declared partial mobilisation against Austria-Hungary.[61] On 30July, Russia ordered general mobilisation. German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg waited until the 31st for an appropriate response, when Germany declared Erklärung des Kriegszustandes, or "Statement on the war status".[18][62] Kaiser Wilhelm II asked his cousin, Tsar Nicolas II, to suspend the Russian general mobilisation. When he refused, Germany issued an ultimatum demanding its mobilisation be stopped, and a commitment not to support Serbia. Another was sent to France, asking her not to support Russia if it were to come to the defence of Serbia. On 1August, after the Russian response, Germany mobilised and declared war on Russia. This also led to the general mobilisation in Austria-Hungary on 4August.

The German government issued demands to France that it remain neutral whilst they decided which deployment plan to implement, it being extremely difficult to change the deployment once it was underway. The modified German Schlieffen Plan, Aufmarsch II West, would deploy 80% of the army in the west, while Aufmarsch I Ost and Aufmarsch II Ost would deploy 60% in the west and 40% in the east. The French did not respond, but sent a mixed message by ordering their troops to withdraw 10 km (6 mi) from the border to avoid any incidents, and at the same time ordered the mobilisation of their reserves. Germany responded by mobilising its own reserves and implementing Aufmarsch II West. The British cabinet decided on 29 July that being a signatory to the 1839 treaty about Belgium did not oblige it to oppose a German invasion of Belgium with military force.[63]

On 1 August, Wilhelm ordered General Helmuth von Moltke the Younger to "march the whole of the... army to the East" after being informed that Britain would remain neutral if France was not attacked (and, possibly, that her hands might, in any case, be stayed by crisis in Ireland).[64][65] Moltke told the Kaiser that attempting to redeploy a million men was unthinkable, and that making it possible for the French to attack the Germans "in the rear" would prove disastrous. Yet Wilhelm insisted that the German army should not march into Luxembourg until he received a telegram sent by his cousin George V, who made it clear that there had been a misunderstanding. Eventually the Kaiser told Moltke, "Now you can do what you want."[66][67]

Cheering crowds in London and Paris on the day war was declared.

On 2 August, Germany occupied Luxembourg, and on 3August declared war on France; on the same day, they sent the Belgian government an ultimatum demanding unimpeded right of way through any part of Belgium, which was refused. Early on the morning of 4August, the Germans invaded; King Albert ordered his military to resist and called for assistance under the 1839 Treaty of London.[68][69][70] Britain demanded Germany comply with the Treaty and respect Belgian neutrality; it declared war on Germany at 19:00 UTC on 4August 1914 (effective from 23:00), following an "unsatisfactory reply".[71]

Progress of the war

Opening hostilities

Confusion among the Central Powers

The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914, but those had never been tested in exercises. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.[72] Germany, however, envisioned Austria-Hungary directing most of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.

Serbian campaign

Serbian Army Blériot XI "Oluj", 1915

Austria invaded and fought the Serbian army at the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara beginning on 12 August. Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizeable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.[73] Serbia's defeat of the Austro-Hungarian invasion of 1914 has been called one of the major upset victories of the twentieth century.[74] The campaign saw the very first use of medical evacuation by the Serbian army in autumn of 1915 and anti-aircraft warfare in the spring of 1915 after an Austrian plane was shot down with ground-to-air fire.[75][76]

German Offensive in Belgium and France

German soldiers in a railway goods wagon on the way to the front in 1914. Early in the war, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.
A French bayonet charge at the Battle of the Frontiers; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded 260,000, including 75,000 dead.

When the war began, the German Order of Battle placed 80% of the army in the West, with the remainder acting as a screening force in the East. The plan was to quickly knock France out of the war, then redeploy to the East and do the same to Russia.

The German offensive in the West was officially titled Aufmarsch II West, but is better known as the Schlieffen Plan, after its original creator. Schlieffen deliberately kept the German left (i.e. its positions in Alsace-Lorraine) weak to lure the French into attacking there, while the majority were allocated to the German right, so as to sweep through Belgium, encircle Paris and trap the French armies against the Swiss border (the French charged into Alsace-Lorraine on the outbreak of war as envisaged by their Plan XVII, thus actually aiding this strategy).[77] However, Schlieffen's successor Moltke grew concerned that the French might push too hard on his left flank. Consequently, as the German Army increased in size in the years leading up to the war, he changed the allocation of forces between the German right and left wings from 85:15 to 70:30. Ultimately, Moltke's changes meant insufficient forces to achieve decisive success and thus unrealistic goals and timings.[78][dubious (June 2017)

World War I had a lasting impact on social memory. It was seen by many in Britain as signalling the end of an era of stability stretching back to the Victorian period, and across Europe many regarded it as a watershed.[412] Historian Samuel Hynes explained:

A generation of innocent young men, their heads full of high abstractions like Honour, Glory and England, went off to war to make the world safe for democracy. They were slaughtered in stupid battles planned by stupid generals. Those who survived were shocked, disillusioned and embittered by their war experiences, and saw that their real enemies were not the Germans, but the old men at home who had lied to them. They rejected the values of the society that had sent them to war, and in doing so separated their own generation from the past and from their cultural inheritance.[413]

This has become the most common perception of World War I, perpetuated by the art, cinema, poems, and stories published subsequently. Films such as All Quiet on the Western Front, Paths of Glory and King & Country have perpetuated the idea, while war-time films including Camrades, Poppies of Flanders, and Shoulder Arms indicate that the most contemporary views of the war were overall far more positive.[414] Likewise, the art of Paul Nash, John Nash, Christopher Nevinson, and Henry Tonks in Britain painted a negative view of the conflict in keeping with the growing perception, while popular war-time artists such as Muirhead Bone painted more serene and pleasant interpretations subsequently rejected as inaccurate.[413] Several historians like John Terraine, Niall Ferguson and Gary Sheffield have challenged these interpretations as partial and polemical views:

These beliefs did not become widely shared because they offered the only accurate interpretation of wartime events. In every respect, the war was much more complicated than they suggest. In recent years, historians have argued persuasively against almost every popular cliché of World WarI. It has been pointed out that, although the losses were devastating, their greatest impact was socially and geographically limited. The many emotions other than horror experienced by soldiers in and out of the front line, including comradeship, boredom, and even enjoyment, have been recognised. The war is not now seen as a 'fight about nothing', but as a war of ideals, a struggle between aggressive militarism and more or less liberal democracy. It has been acknowledged that British generals were often capable men facing difficult challenges, and that it was under their command that the British army played a major part in the defeat of the Germans in 1918: a great forgotten victory.[414]

Though these views have been discounted as "myths",[413][415] they are common. They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences, reflecting in the 1950s perceptions of the war as "aimless" following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the 1960s. The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected.[414]

Social trauma

A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department

The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.[416]

The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed, and those who had fought in the war were referred to as the Lost Generation.[417] For years afterwards, people mourned the dead, the missing, and the many disabled.[418] Many soldiers returned with severe trauma, suffering from shell shock (also called neurasthenia, a condition related to posttraumatic stress disorder).[419] Many more returned home with few after-effects; however, their silence about the war contributed to the conflict's growing mythological status. Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception. Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell, and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the 1990s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.[416]

Discontent in Germany

The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. Similarly, the popularity of the stab-in-the-back legend (German: Dolchstoßlegende) was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common, and the German populace came to see themselves as victims. The widespread acceptance of the "stab-in-the-back" theory delegitimised the Weimar government and destabilised the system, opening it to extremes of right and left.

Communist and fascist movements around Europe drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war. Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity by using German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles.[420] World WarII was in part a continuation of the power struggle never fully resolved by World WarI. Furthermore, it was common for Germans in the 1930s to justify acts of aggression due to perceived injustices imposed by the victors of World WarI.[231][421][422] American historian William Rubinstein wrote that:

The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies, and also the Armenian Genocide of 1915. All these slaughters, it is argued here, had a common origin, the collapse of the elite structure and normal modes of government of much of central, eastern and southern Europe as a result of World WarI, without which surely neither Communism nor Fascism would have existed except in the minds of unknown agitators and crackpots.[423]

Economic effects

Poster showing women workers, 1915

One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire. To harness all the power of their societies, governments created new ministries and powers. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort; many have lasted to this day. Similarly, the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments, such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany.

Gross domestic product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain, Italy, and the United States), but decreased in France and Russia, in neutral Netherlands, and in the three main Central Powers. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria, Russia, France, and the Ottoman Empire ranged between 30% and 40%. In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war's end there was no meat.

In all nations, the government's share of GDP increased, surpassing 50% in both Germany and France and nearly reaching that level in Britain. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily from Wall Street. President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but allowed a great increase in US government lending to the Allies. After 1919, the US demanded repayment of these loans. The repayments were, in part, funded by German reparations that, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and some loans were never repaid. Britain still owed the United States $4.4 billion[k] of World WarI debt in 1934, the last instalment was finally paid in 2015.[424]

Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women.[425]

World War I further compounded the gender imbalance, adding to the phenomenon of surplus women. The deaths of nearly one million men during the war in Britain increased the gender gap by almost a million: from 670,000 to 1,700,000. The number of unmarried women seeking economic means grew dramatically. In addition, demobilisation and economic decline following the war caused high unemployment. The war increased female employment; however, the return of demobilised men displaced many from the workforce, as did the closure of many of the wartime factories.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918, limited to meat, sugar, and fats (butter and margarine), but not bread. The new system worked smoothly. From 1914 to 1918, trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million.

Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply from traditional sources had become difficult. Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called on to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese, used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.[426]

Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles (the so-called "war guilt" clause) stated Germany accepted responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies."[427] It was worded as such to lay a legal basis for reparations, and a similar clause was inserted in the treaties with Austria and Hungary. However neither of them interpreted it as an admission of war guilt."[428] In 1921, the total reparation sum was placed at 132 billion gold marks. However, "Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay" this sum. The total sum was divided into three categories, with the third being "deliberately designed to be chimerical" and its "primary function was to mislead public opinion ... into believing the "total sum was being maintained."[429] Thus, 50 billion gold marks (12.5 billion dollars) "represented the actual Allied assessment of German capacity to pay" and "therefore ... represented the total German reparations" figure that had to be paid.[429]

This figure could be paid in cash or in kind (coal, timber, chemical dyes, etc.). In addition, some of the territory lost—via the treaty of Versailles—was credited towards the reparation figure as were other acts such as helping to restore the Library of Louvain.[430] By 1929, the Great Depression arrived, causing political chaos throughout the world.[431] In 1932 the payment of reparations was suspended by the international community, by which point Germany had paid only the equivalent of 20.598 billion gold marks in reparations.[432] With the rise of Adolf Hitler, all bonds and loans that had been issued and taken out during the 1920s and early 1930s were cancelled. David Andelman notes "refusing to pay doesn't make an agreement null and void. The bonds, the agreement, still exist." Thus, following the Second World War, at the London Conference in 1953, Germany agreed to resume payment on the money borrowed. On 3October 2010, Germany made the final payment on these bonds.[l]

The war contributed to the evolution of the wristwatch from women's jewellery to a practical everyday item, replacing the pocketwatch, which requires a free hand to operate.[437] Military funding of advancements in radio contributed to the postwar popularity of the medium.[437]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Russian Republic during 1917.
  2. ^ The United States did not ratify any of the treaties agreed to at the Paris Peace Conference.
  3. ^ Bulgaria joined the Central Powers on 14 October 1915.
  4. ^ The Ottoman Empire agreed to a secret alliance with Germany on 2 August 1914. It joined the war on the side of the Central Powers on 29 October 1914.
  5. ^ The United States declared war on Austria-Hungary on 7December 1917.
  6. ^ Austria was considered one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
  7. ^ The United States declared war on Germany on 6April 1917.
  8. ^ Hungary was considered one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
  9. ^ Although the Treaty of Sèvres was intended to end the war between the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire, the Allied Powers and the Republic of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, agreed to the Treaty of Lausanne.
  10. ^ A German attempt to use chemical weapons on the Russian front in January 1915 failed to cause casualties.
  11. ^ 109 in this context – see Long and short scales
  12. ^ World War I officially ended when Germany paid off the final amount of reparations imposed on it by the Allies.[433][434][435][436]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 273
  2. ^ "British Army statistics of the Great War". Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  3. ^ Figures are for the British Empire
  4. ^ Figures are for Metropolitan France and its colonies
  5. ^ a b Mougel, Nadège. "World War I casualties" (PDF). Centre européen Robert Schuman.
  6. ^ Nash (1976). Darkest Hours. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1590775264.
  7. ^ "The war to end all wars". BBC News. 10 November 1998.
  8. ^ Keegan 1998, p. 8.
  9. ^ Bade & Brown 2003, pp. 167–168.
  10. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 307.
  11. ^ "World War I – Killed, wounded, and missing". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b Spreeuwenberg, P.; et al. (1 December 2018). "Reassessing the Global Mortality Burden of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic". American Journal of Epidemiology. 187 (12): 2561–2567. doi:10.1093/aje/kwy191. PMID 30202996.
  13. ^ Williams, Rachel (2014). Dual Threat: The Spanish Influenza and World War I. University of Tennessee Thesis: Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. pp. 4–10. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  14. ^ a b Taylor 1998, pp. 80–93
  15. ^ Djokić 2003, p. 24.
  16. ^ a b Charles Seymour (1916). The Diplomatic Background of the War. Yale University Press. pp. 35, 147.
  17. ^ Lieven, Dominic (2016). Towards the Flame: Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia. Penguin. p. 326. ISBN 978-0141399744.
  18. ^ a b Martel, Gordon (2014). The Month that Changed the World: July 1914 and WWI (Kindle ed.). OUP. 6286.
  19. ^ "Le Président de la République, R. [Raymond] Poincaré et al., 'A La Nation Française'" (PDF). Journal Officiel de la République Française: 7053–7054. 2 August 1914. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  20. ^ Zuber, Terence (2011). Inventing the Schlieffen Plan: German War Planning 1871–1914 (2014 ed.). OUP. pp. 46–49. ISBN 978-0198718055.
  21. ^ "Note Given 2 August 1914, at 19 hours, by M. de Below Saleske [Klaus von Below-Saleske], Minister of Germany, to M. Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs". Documents Diplomatiques 1914: La Guerre Européenne Diplomatic Documents 1914: The European War (PDF). Ministère des Affaires Étrangères (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). 1914. p. 201. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  22. ^ Coffman, Edward M. (1998). The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I.
  23. ^ Sheffield, Gary (2002). Forgotten Victory. Review. p. 251. ISBN 978-0747271574.
  24. ^ Gerwath, Robert (2016). The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End, 1917–1923 (Kindle ed.). Penguin. 3323–3342. ISBN 978-0141976372.
  25. ^ Shapiro & Epstein 2006, p. 329.
  26. ^ "Were they always called World War I and World War II?". Ask History. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  27. ^ Braybon 2004, p. 8.
  28. ^ "great, adj., adv., and n". Oxford English Dictionary.
  29. ^ "The war to end all wars". BBC News. 10 November 1998. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  30. ^ Margery Fee and Janice McAlpine. Guide to Canadian English Usage. (Oxford UP, 1997), p. 210.
  31. ^ Clark 2013, pp. 121–152.
  32. ^ Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848–1945: Volume II: Intellect, Taste, and Anxiety (1977) 2: 117.
  33. ^ Willmott 2003, p. [page needed].
  34. ^ Keegan 1998, p. 52.
  35. ^ Medlicott, W.N. (1945). "Bismarck and the Three Emperors' Alliance, 1881–87". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 27: 66–70. doi:10.2307/3678575. JSTOR 3678575.
  36. ^ Keenan, George (1986). The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia and the Coming of the First World War. Manchester University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0719017070.
  37. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 15
  38. ^ Fay, Sidney B. (1930). The Origins of the World War. 1 (2nd ed.). pp. 290–293.
  39. ^ a b Willmott 2003, p. 21
  40. ^ Holger Herwig,"The Failure of German Sea Power, 1914–1945: Mahan, Tirpitz, and Raeder Reconsidered", The International History Review, 10:1 (February 1988), 72–73.
  41. ^ Moll, Luebbert; Kendall, Gregory (1980). "Arms Race and Military Expenditure Models: A Review". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 24 (1): 153–185. doi:10.1177/002200278002400107. JSTOR 173938.
  42. ^ Stevenson 2016, p. 45.
  43. ^ Stevenson 2016, p. 42.
  44. ^ Keegan 1998, pp. 48–49.
  45. ^ Clark, Christopher M. (2012). The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914. London: Allen Lane. pp. 251–252. ISBN 9780713999426. LCCN 2012515665.
  46. ^ Willmott 2003, pp. 2–23.
  47. ^ Finestone, Jeffrey; Massie, Robert K. (1981). The last courts of Europe. Dent. p. 247.
  48. ^ Smith 2010.
  49. ^ "European powers maintain focus despite killings in Sarajevo  – This Day in History". History.com. 30 June 1914. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  50. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 26.
  51. ^ Clark, Christopher (25 June 2014). Month of Madness. BBC Radio 4.
  52. ^ Djordjević, Dimitrije; Spence, Richard B. (1992). Scholar, patriot, mentor: historical essays in honor of Dimitrije Djordjević. East European Monographs. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-88033-217-0. Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Croats and Muslims in Sarajevo joined forces in an anti-Serb pogrom.
  53. ^ Reports Service: Southeast Europe series. American Universities Field Staff. 1964. p. 44. Retrieved 7 December 2013. ... the assassination was followed by officially encouraged anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo ...
  54. ^ Kröll, Herbert (2008). Austrian-Greek encounters over the centuries: history, diplomacy, politics, arts, economics. Studienverlag. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-7065-4526-6. Retrieved 1 September 2013. ... arrested and interned some 5.500 prominent Serbs and sentenced to death some 460 persons, a new Schutzkorps, an auxiliary militia, widened the anti-Serb repression.
  55. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 485.
  56. ^ Schindler, John R. (2007). Unholy Terror: Bosnia, Al-Qa'ida, and the Rise of Global Jihad. Zenith Imprint. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-61673-964-5.
  57. ^ Velikonja 2003, p. 141.
  58. ^ Stevenson 1996, p. 12.
  59. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 27.
  60. ^ Fromkin, David; Europe's Last Summer: Why the World Went to War in 1914, Heinemann, 2004; pp. 196–97.
  61. ^ L. F. C. Turner, "The Russian Mobilization in 1914." Journal of Contemporary History 3.1 (1968): 65-88 online.
  62. ^ "Verordnung, betreffend die Erklärung des Kriegszustandes". Reichs-gesetzblatt (in German). 31 July 1914. LCCN 14013198.
  63. ^ Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers (2012) p. 539.
  64. ^ "On This Day, March 24, 1917. Kaiser's spy in north". The Irish News. Belfast. 24 March 2017.
  65. ^ Coogan, Tim Pat (2009). Ireland in the 20th Century. London: Random Houe. p. 48. ISBN 9780099415220.
  66. ^ Preston, Richard (1 August 2014). "First World War centenary: how the events of August 1 1914 unfolded" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  67. ^ McMeekin, Sean, July 1914: Countdown to War, Basic Books, 2014, 480 p., ISBN 978-0465060740, pp. 342, 349
  68. ^ Crowe 2001, pp. 4–5.
  69. ^ Dell, Pamela (2013). A World War I Timeline (Smithsonian War Timelines Series). Capstone. pp. 10–12. ISBN 978-1-4765-4159-4.
  70. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 29.
  71. ^ "Daily Mirror Headlines: The Declaration of War, Published 4 August 1914". BBC. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  72. ^ Strachan 2003, pp. 292–296, 343–354.
  73. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 172.
  74. ^ Schindler, John R. (1 April 2002). "Disaster on the Drina: The Austro-Hungarian Army in Serbia, 1914". War in History. 9 (2): 159–195. doi:10.1191/0968344502wh250oa.
  75. ^ "Veliki rat – Avijacija". rts.rs. RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of Serbia.
  76. ^ "How was the first military airplane shot down". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  77. ^ Horne, Alistair (1964). The Price of Glory (1993 ed.). Penguin. p. 22. ISBN 978-0140170412.
  78. ^ Holmes 2014, pp. 194, 211.
  79. ^ Stevenson 2012, p. 54.
  80. ^ Jackson, Julian (2018). A Certain Idea of France: The Life of Charles de Gaulle. Allen Lane. p. 55. ISBN 978-1846143519.
  81. ^ Lieven, Dominic (2016). Towards the Flame: Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia. Penguin. p. 327. ISBN 978-0141399744.
  82. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, pp. 376–378.
  83. ^ Horne, Alistair (1964). The Price of Glory (1993 ed.). Penguin. p. 221. ISBN 978-0140170412.
  84. ^ Donko, Wilhelm M. (2012). A Brief History of the Austrian Navy epubli GmbH, Berlin, p. 79
  85. ^ Keegan 1998, pp. 224–232.
  86. ^ Falls 1960, pp. 79–80.
  87. ^ Farwell 1989, p. 353.
  88. ^ Brown 1994, pp. 197–198.
  89. ^ Brown 1994, pp. 201–203.
  90. ^ "Participants from the Indian subcontinent in the First World War". Memorial Gates Trust. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
  91. ^ Horniman, Benjamin Guy (1984). British administration and the Amritsar massacre. Mittal Publications. p. 45.
  92. ^ Raudzens 1990, p. 424.
  93. ^ Raudzens 1990, pp. 421–423.
  94. ^ Goodspeed 1985, p. 199 (footnote).
  95. ^ Duffy, Michael (22 August 2009). "Weapons of War: Poison Gas". Firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  96. ^ Love 1996.
  97. ^ Dupuy 1993, p. 1042.
  98. ^ Grant 2005, p. 276.
  99. ^ Lichfield, John (21 February 2006). "Verdun: myths and memories of the 'lost villages' of France". The Independent. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  100. ^ Harris 2008, p. 271.
  101. ^ "Living conditions". Trench Warfare. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.[unreliable source?]
  102. ^ Valentine 2006[full citation needed]
  103. ^ Anderson, Susan (29 August 2006). "Analysis of Spanish flu cases in 1918–1920 suggests transfusions might help in bird flu pandemic". American College of Physicians. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  104. ^ Porras-Gallo & Davis 2014[full citation needed]
  105. ^ Barry 2004, p. 171[full citation needed]
  106. ^ Galvin 2007[full citation needed]
  107. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 1221.
  108. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 854.
  109. ^ Keegan 1998, pp. 325–326.
  110. ^ Strachan 2003, p. 244.
  111. ^ Inglis 1995, p. 2.
  112. ^ Humphries 2007, p. 66.
  113. ^ "The Naval Balance of Power in 1914". 4 August 2014.
  114. ^ Sempa, Francis P. (30 December 2014). "The Geopolitical Vision of Alfred Thayer Mahan". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  115. ^ Taylor 2007, pp. 39–47.
  116. ^ Keene 2006, p. 5.
  117. ^ Halpern 1995, p. 293.
  118. ^ Zieger 2001, p. 50.
  119. ^ Jeremy Black (June 2016). "Jutland's Place in History". Naval History. 30 (3): 16–21.
  120. ^ a b c d Sheffield, Garry. "The First Battle of the Atlantic". World Wars in Depth. BBC. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  121. ^ Gilbert 2004, p. 306.
  122. ^ von der Porten 1969.
  123. ^ Jones 2001, p. 80.
  124. ^ Nova Scotia House of Assembly Committee on Veterans Affairs (9 November 2006). "Committee Hansard". Hansard. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  125. ^ Chickering, Roger; Förster, Stig; Greiner, Bernd (2005). A world at total war: global conflict and the politics of destruction, 1937–1945. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Washington, DC: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83432-2.
  126. ^ a b Price 1980
  127. ^ "The Balkan Wars and World War I". p. 28. Library of Congress Country Studies.
  128. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 241–.
  129. ^ Neiberg 2005, pp. 54–55.
  130. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, pp. 1075–1076.
  131. ^ DiNardo 2015, p. 102.
  132. ^ Neiberg 2005, pp. 108–110.
  133. ^ Hall, Richard (2010). Balkan Breakthrough: The Battle of Dobro Pole 1918. Indiana University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-253-35452-5.
  134. ^ Tucker, Wood & Murphy 1999, pp. 150–152.
  135. ^ Korsun, N. "The Balkan Front of the World War" (in Russian). militera.lib.ru. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  136. ^ Doughty 2005, p. 491.
  137. ^ Gettleman, Marvin; Schaar, Stuart, eds. (2003). The Middle East and Islamic world reader (4th ed.). New York: Grove Press. pp. 119–120. ISBN 978-0-8021-3936-8.
  138. ^ January, Brendan (2007). Genocide : modern crimes against humanity. Minneapolis, Minn.: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7613-3421-7.
  139. ^ Lieberman, Benjamin (2013). The Holocaust and Genocides in Europe. New York: Continuum Publishing Corporation. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-1-4411-9478-7.
  140. ^ Arthur J. Barker, The Neglected War: Mesopotamia, 1914–1918 (London: Faber, 1967)
  141. ^ Crawford, John; McGibbon, Ian (2007). New Zealand's Great War: New Zealand, the Allies and the First World War. Exisle Publishing. pp. 219–220.
  142. ^ Fromkin 2004, p. 119.
  143. ^ a b Hinterhoff 1984, pp. 499–503
  144. ^ a b c The Encyclopedia Americana, 1920, v.28, p.403
  145. ^ a b c d e f g Northcote 1922, p. 788[full citation needed]
  146. ^ Sachar 1970, pp. 122–138.
  147. ^ Gilbert 1994.
  148. ^ Hanioglu, M. Sukru (2010). A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton University Press. pp. 180–181. ISBN 978-0-691-13452-9.
  149. ^ Gardner, Hall (2015). The Failure to Prevent World War I: The Unexpected Armageddon. Ashgate. p. 120.
  150. ^ Page, Thomas Nelson (1920). Italy and the world war. Scribners. pp. 142–208.
  151. ^ Marshall, p. 108[full citation needed]
  152. ^ Thompson, Mark. The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915–1919. London: Faber and Faber. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
  153. ^ Praga, Giuseppe; Luxardo, Franco (1993). History of Dalmatia. Giardini. p. 281. ISBN 88-427-0295-1.
  154. ^ a b O'Brien, Paul (2005). Mussolini in the First World War: the Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. Oxford, England; New York: Berg. p. 17. ISBN 1-84520-051-9.
  155. ^ Hickey 2003, pp. 60–65.
  156. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, pp. 585–589.
  157. ^ Laurentiu-Cristian Dumitru, Preliminaries of Romania's entering the World War I, No. 1/2012, Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University, Bucharest, p.171
  158. ^ Michael B. Barrett, Prelude to Blitzkrieg: The 1916 Austro-German Campaign in Romania (2013)
  159. ^ Cyril Falls, The Great War, p. 285
  160. ^ a b Clark 1927.
  161. ^ Béla, Köpeczi. Erdély története. Akadémiai Kiadó.
  162. ^ Béla, Köpeczi (1998). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 978-84-8371-020-3.
  163. ^ Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Потери народонаселения в 20. веке [The loss of population in the 20th Century] (in Russian). Moscow: Русская панорама. ISBN 978-5931651071.
  164. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 715.
  165. ^ Meyer 2006, pp. 152–154, 161, 163, 175, 182.
  166. ^ Smele
  167. ^ Schindler 2003.
  168. ^ Neiberg, Michael (2014). The Cambridge History of the First World War (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–132.
  169. ^ "How Germany got the Russian Revolution off the ground". Deutsche Welle. 7 November 2017.
  170. ^ Wheeler-Bennett, John W. (1938). Brest-Litovsk : The forgotten peace. London: Macmillan. pp. 36–41.
  171. ^ Mawdsley 2007, pp. 54–55.
  172. ^ a b Alexander Lanoszka; Michael A. Hunzeker (11 November 2018). "Why the First War lasted so long". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  173. ^ a b Keegan 1998, p. 345.
  174. ^ Kernek 1970, pp. 721–766.
  175. ^ Marshall, p. 292[full citation needed]
  176. ^ Heyman 1997, pp. 146–147.
  177. ^ Kurlander 2006.
  178. ^ Shanafelt 1985, pp. 125–130.
  179. ^ Erickson 2001, p. 163.
  180. ^ Moore, A. Briscoe (1920). The Mounted Riflemen in Sinai & Palestine: The Story of New Zealand's Crusaders. Christchurch: Whitcombe & Tombs. p. 67. OCLC 156767391.
  181. ^ Falls, Cyril (1930). Military Operations. Part I Egypt & Palestine: Volume 2 From June 1917 to the End of the War. Official History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Maps compiled by A.F. Becke. London: HM Stationery Office. p. 59. OCLC 1113542987.
  182. ^ Wavell, Earl (1968) [1933]. "The Palestine Campaigns". In Sheppard, Eric William (ed.). A Short History of the British Army (4th ed.). London: Constable & Co. pp. 153–155. OCLC 35621223.
  183. ^ "Text of the Decree of the Surrender of Jerusalem into British Control". First World War.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  184. ^ Bruce, Anthony (2002). The Last Crusade: The Palestine Campaign in the First World War. London: John Murray. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-7195-5432-2.
  185. ^ "Who's Who – Kress von Kressenstein". First World War.com. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  186. ^ "Who's Who – Otto Liman von Sanders". First World War.com. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  187. ^ Erickson 2001, p. 195.
  188. ^ Daily Telegraph Wednesday 15 August 1917, reprinted on p. 26 of Daily Telegraph Tuesday 15 August 2017
  189. ^ Brands 1997, p. 756.
  190. ^ "Wilson for 'America First'", The Chicago Daily Tribune (12 October 1915).
  191. ^ Cooper, John Milton. Woodrow Wilson: A Biography, p. 278 (Vintage Books 2011).
  192. ^ Garrett, Garet. Defend America First: The Antiwar Editorials of the Saturday Evening Post, 1939–1942, p. 13 (Caxton Press 2003).
  193. ^ Tuchman 1966.
  194. ^ a b Karp 1979
  195. ^ "Woodrow Wilson Urges Congress to Declare War on Germany" (Wikisource)
  196. ^ "Selective Service System: History and Records". Sss.gov. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  197. ^ Stone, David (2014). The Kaiser's Army: The German Army in World War One. London: COnway. ISBN 978-1844862924.
  198. ^ "Teaching With Documents: Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I". US National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  199. ^ Millett & Murray 1988, p. 143.
  200. ^ Westwell 2004.
  201. ^ Posen 1984, p. 190[full citation needed]
  202. ^ Gray 1991, p. 86.
  203. ^ Rickard 2007.
  204. ^ Hovannisian 1967, pp. 1–39.
  205. ^ Ayers 1919, p. 104.
  206. ^ Schreiber, Shane B. (2004) [1977]. Shock Army of the British Empire: The Canadian Corps in the Last 100 Days of the Great War. St. Catharines, ON: Vanwell. ISBN 978-1-55125-096-0. OCLC 57063659.[page needed]
  207. ^ Rickard 2001.
  208. ^ Brown, Malcolm (1999) [1998]. 1918: Year of Victory. London: Pan. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-330-37672-3.
  209. ^ a b Pitt 2003
  210. ^ a b c d Gray & Argyle 1990
  211. ^ Terraine 1963.
  212. ^ Nicholson 1962.
  213. ^ Ludendorff 1919.
  214. ^ McLellan, p. 49.
  215. ^ Christie, Norm M. (1997). The Canadians at Cambrai and the Canal du Nord, August–September 1918. For King and Empire: A Social History and Battlefield Tour. CEF Books. ISBN 978-1-896979-18-2. OCLC 166099767.
  216. ^ Stevenson 2004, p. 380.
  217. ^ Hull 2006, pp. 307–310.
  218. ^ a b Stevenson 2004, p. 383.
  219. ^ Painter 2012, p. 25.
  220. ^ K. Kuhl. "Die 14 Kieler Punkte" [The Kiel 14 points] (PDF).
  221. ^ Dähnhardt, D. (1978). Revolution in Kiel. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag. p. 91. ISBN 3-529-02636-0.
  222. ^ Wette, Wolfram (2006). "Die Novemberrevolution – Kiel 1918". In Fleischhauer; Turowski (eds.). Kieler Erinnerungsorte. Boyens.
  223. ^ Stevenson 2004, p. 385.
  224. ^ Stevenson 2004, Chapter 17.
  225. ^ a b "1918 Timeline". League of Nations Photo Archive. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  226. ^ "The Battle of Dobro Polje – The Forgotten Balkan Skirmish That Ended WW1". Militaryhistorynow.com. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  227. ^ "The Germans Could no Longer Keep up the Fight". historycollection.com. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  228. ^ Axelrod 2018, p. 260.
  229. ^ Andrea Di Michele (2014). "Trento, Bolzano E Innsbruck: L'occupazione Militare Italiana Del Tirolo (1918–1920)" [Trento, Bolzano and Innsbruck: The Italian Military Occupation of Tyrol (1918–1920)] (PDF). Trento e Trieste. Percorsi Degli Italiani d'Austria Dal '48 All'annessione (in Italian): 436–437. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2018. La forza numerica del contingente italiano variò con il passare dei mesi e al suo culmine raggiunse i 20–22.000 uomini. [The numerical strength of the Italian contingent varied with the passing of months and at its peak reached 20–22,000 men.]
  230. ^ "Clairière de l'Armistice" (in French). Ville de Compiègne. Archived from the original on 27 August 2007.
  231. ^ a b Baker 2006.
  232. ^ Chickering 2004, pp. 185–188.
  233. ^ Hardach, Gerd (1977). The First World War, 1914–1918. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-520-03060-5, using estimated made by Menderhausen, H. (1941). The Economics of War. New York: Prentice-Hall. p. 305. OCLC 774042.
  234. ^ "France's oldest WWI veteran dies" Archived 28 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 20 January 2008.
  235. ^ Hastedt, Glenn P. (2009). Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Infobase Publishing. p. 483. ISBN 978-1-4381-0989-3.
  236. ^ Murrin, John; Johnson, Paul; McPherson, James; Gerstle, Gary; Fahs, Alice (2010). Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. II. Cengage Learning. p. 622. ISBN 978-0-495-90383-3.
  237. ^ "Harding Ends War; Signs Peace Decree at Senator's Home. Thirty Persons Witness Momentous Act in Frelinghuysen Living Room at Raritan". The New York Times. 3 July 1921.
  238. ^ "No. 31773". The London Gazette. 10 February 1920. p. 1671.
  239. ^ "No. 31991". The London Gazette. 23 July 1920. pp. 7765–7766.
  240. ^ "No. 13627". The London Gazette. 27 August 1920. p. 1924.
  241. ^ "No. 32421". The London Gazette. 12 August 1921. pp. 6371–6372.
  242. ^ "No. 32964". The London Gazette. 12 August 1924. pp. 6030–6031.
  243. ^ http://www.warmemorials.org/uploads/publications/117.pdf
  244. ^ Magliveras 1999, pp. 8–12.
  245. ^ Northedge 1986, pp. 35–36.
  246. ^ Morrow, John H. (2005). The Great War: An Imperial History. London: Routledge. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-415-20440-8.
  247. ^ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard U.P. p. 204.
  248. ^ Ypersele, Laurence Van (2012). Horne, John (ed.). Mourning and Memory, 1919–45. A Companion to World War I. Wiley. p. 584.
  249. ^ "The Surrogate Hegemon in Polish Postcolonial Discourse Ewa Thompson, Rice University" (PDF).
  250. ^ Kocsis, Károly; Hodosi, Eszter Kocsisné (1998). Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin. p. 19. ISBN 978-963-7395-84-0.
  251. ^ "8 Facts You Might Not Have Known About Andorra". 30 June 2011.
  252. ^ "The 44-year war between Germany and Andorra". 3 April 2016.
  253. ^ "9 wars that were technically ongoing due to quirks of diplomacy".
  254. ^ "25 things you might not know about WWI". 24 June 2014.
  255. ^ "Appeals to Americans to Pray for Serbians" (PDF). The New York Times. 27 July 1918.
  256. ^ "Serbia Restored" (PDF). The New York Times. 5 November 1918.
  257. ^ Simpson, Matt (22 August 2009). "The Minor Powers During World War One – Serbia". firstworldwar.com.
  258. ^ "'ANZAC Day' in London; King, Queen, and General Birdwood at Services in Abbey". The New York Times. 26 April 1916.
  259. ^ Australian War Memorial. "The ANZAC Day tradition". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  260. ^ Canadian War Museum. "Vimy Ridge". Canadian War Museum. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  261. ^ "The War's Impact on Canada". Canadian War Museum. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  262. ^ "Canada's last WW1 vet gets his citizenship back". CBC News. 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008.
  263. ^ Documenting Democracy Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 31 March 2012
  264. ^ "Balfour Declaration (United Kingdom 1917)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  265. ^ "Timeline of The Jewish Agency for Israel:1917–1919". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  266. ^ Doughty 2005.
  267. ^ Hooker 1996.
  268. ^ Muller 2008.
  269. ^ Kaplan 1993.
  270. ^ Salibi 1993.
  271. ^ Evans 2005
  272. ^ "Pre-State Israel: Under Ottoman Rule (1517–1917)". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  273. ^ Gelvin 2005
  274. ^ Isaac & Hosh 1992.
  275. ^ a b Sanhueza, Carlos (2011). "El debate sobre "el embrujamiento alemán" y el papel de la ciencia alemana hacia fines del siglo XIX en Chile" (PDF). Ideas viajeras y sus objetos. El intercambio científico entre Alemania y América austral. Madrid–Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana–Vervuert (in Spanish). pp. 29–40.
  276. ^ Penny, H. Glenn (2017). "Material Connections: German Schools, Things, and Soft Power in Argentina and Chile from the 1880s through the Interwar Period". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 59 (3): 519–549. doi:10.1017/S0010417517000159.
  277. ^ Kitchen 2000, p. 22.
  278. ^ Howard, N.P. (1993). The Social and Political Consequences of the Allied Food Blockade of Germany, 1918–19 (PDF). German History. 11. pp. 161–188. table p. 166, with 271,000 excess deaths in 1918 and 71,000 in the first half of 1919 while the blockade was still in effect.
  279. ^ Saadi 2009.
  280. ^ Patenaude, Bertrand M. (30 January 2007). "Food as a Weapon". Hoover Digest. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  281. ^ Ball 1996, pp. 16, 211.
  282. ^ "The Russians are coming (Russian influence in Harbin, Manchuria, China; economic relations)". The Economist (US). 14 January 1995. Archived from the original on 10 May 2007. (via Highbeam.com)
  283. ^ Souter 2000, p. 354.
  284. ^ Tschanz.
  285. ^ Conlon.
  286. ^ Taliaferro, William Hay (1972). Medicine and the War. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-8369-2629-3.
  287. ^ Knobler et al. 2005.
  288. ^ Kamps, Bernd Sebastian; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo. Influenza. Influenza Report. Flying Publisher. ISBN 978-3-924774-51-6. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  289. ^ K. von Economo.Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 10 May 1917, 30: 581–585. Die Encephalitis lethargica. Leipzig and Vienna, Franz Deuticke, 1918.
  290. ^ Reid, A.H.; McCall, S.; Henry, J.M.; Taubenberger, J.K. (2001). "Experimenting on the Past: The Enigma of von Economo's Encephalitis Lethargica". J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60 (7): 663–670. doi:10.1093/jnen/60.7.663. PMID 11444794.
  291. ^ "Pogroms". Encyclopaedia Judaica. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  292. ^ "Jewish Modern and Contemporary Periods (ca. 1700–1917)". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  293. ^ "The Diaspora Welcomes the Pope" Archived 4 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Der Spiegel Online. 28 November 2006.
  294. ^ Rummel, R.J. (1998). "The Holocaust in Comparative and Historical Perspective". Idea Journal of Social Issues. 3 (2).
  295. ^ Hedges, Chris (17 September 2000). "A Few Words in Greek Tell of a Homeland Lost". The New York Times.
  296. ^ Hartcup 1988, p. 154.
  297. ^ Hartcup 1988, pp. 82–86.
  298. ^ Sterling, Christopher H. (2008). Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-732-6 p. 444.
  299. ^ Mosier 2001, pp. 42–48.
  300. ^ Jager, Herbert (2001). German Artillery of World War One. Crowood Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1861264039.
  301. ^ Hartcup 1988.
  302. ^ Raudzens 1990, p. 421.
  303. ^ a b Wilfred Owen: poems, (Faber and Faber, 2004)
  304. ^ Raudzens 1990.
  305. ^ Heller 1984.
  306. ^ Postwar pulp novels on future "gas wars" included Reginald Glossop's 1932 novel Ghastly Dew and Neil Bell's 1931 novel The Gas War of 1940.
  307. ^ "Heavy Railroad Artillery" on YouTube
  308. ^ Lawrence Sondhaus, The Great War at Sea: A Naval History of the First World War (2014).
  309. ^ Lawson, Eric; Lawson, Jane (2002). The First Air Campaign: August 1914– November 1918. Da Capo Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-306-81213-2.
  310. ^ a b Cross 1991
  311. ^ Cross 1991, pp. 56–57.
  312. ^ "Manfred von Richthofen". theaerodrome.com. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  313. ^ Winter 1983.
  314. ^ a b Johnson 2001
  315. ^ Halpern, Paul G. (1994). A Naval History of World War I. Routledge, p. 301; ISBN 1-85728-498-4
  316. ^ Hadley, Michael L. (1995). Count Not the Dead: The Popular Image of the German Submarine. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, p. 36; ISBN 0-7735-1282-9.
  317. ^ Davies, J.D. (2013). Britannia's Dragon: A Naval History of Wales. History Press Limited. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7524-9410-4.
  318. ^ "The blockade of Germany". nationalarchives.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  319. ^ Raico, Ralph (26 April 2010). "The Blockade and Attempted Starvation of Germany". Mises Institute.
  320. ^ Grebler, Leo (1940). The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria–Hungary. Yale University Press. p. 78
  321. ^ Cox, Mary Elisabeth (21 September 2014). "Hunger games: or how the Allied blockade in the First World War deprived German children of nutrition, and Allied food aid subsequently saved them. Abstract". The Economic History Review. 68 (2): 600–631. doi:10.1111/ehr.12070. ISSN 0013-0117.
  322. ^ Marks 2013.
  323. ^ Devlin, Patrick (1975). Too Proud to Fight: Woodrow Wilson's Neutrality. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 193–195.
  324. ^ a b c d Fitzgerald, Gerard (April 2008). "Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I". American Journal of Public Health. 98 (4): 611–625. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.11930. PMC 2376985. PMID 18356568.
  325. ^ Schneider, Barry R. (28 February 1999). Future War and Counterproliferation: US Military Responses to NBC. Praeger. p. 84. ISBN 0-275-96278-4.
  326. ^ Taylor, Telford (1993). The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir. Little, Brown and Company. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-316-83400-1. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  327. ^ Graham, Thomas; Lavera, Damien J. (2003). Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era. University of Washington Press. pp. 7–9. ISBN 978-0-295-98296-0. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  328. ^ Haber, L.F. (20 February 1986). The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War. Clarendon Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 978-0-19-858142-0.
  329. ^ Vilensky, Joel A. (20 February 1986). Dew of Death: The Story of Lewisite, America's World War I Weapon of Mass destruction. Indiana University Press. pp. 78–80. ISBN 978-0-253-34612-4.
  330. ^ Ellison, D. Hank (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 567–570. ISBN 978-0-8493-1434-6.
  331. ^ Boot, Max (2007). War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World. Gotham. pp. 245–250. ISBN 978-1-59240-315-8.
  332. ^ Johnson, Jeffrey Allan (2017). "Military-Industrial Interactions in the Development of Chemical Warfare, 1914–1918: Comparing National Cases Within the Technological System of the Great War". In Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter; Renn, Jürgen; Schmaltz, Florian; Wolf, Martin (eds.). One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 147–148. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51664-6. ISBN 9783319516646.
  333. ^ Henry Morgenthau (1918). "XXV: Talaat Tells Why He "Deports" the Armenians". Ambassador Mogenthau's story. Brigham Young University.
  334. ^ Honzík, Miroslav; Honzíková, Hana (1984). 1914/1918, Léta zkázy a naděje. Czech Republic: Panorama.
  335. ^ a b International Association of Genocide Scholars (13 June 2005). "Open Letter to the Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan". Archived from the original on 6 October 2007.
  336. ^ Vartparonian, Paul Leverkuehn; Kaiser (2008). A German officer during the Armenian genocide: a biography of Max von Scheubner-Richter. translated by Alasdair Lean; with a preface by Jorge and a historical introduction by Hilmar. London: Taderon Press for the Gomidas Institute. ISBN 978-1-903656-81-5.
  337. ^ Ferguson 2006, p. 177.
  338. ^ "International Association of Genocide Scholars" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  339. ^ Fromkin 1989, pp. 212–215.
  340. ^ International Association of Genocide Scholars. "Resolution on genocides committed by the Ottoman empire" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2008.
  341. ^ Gaunt, David (2006). Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
  342. ^ Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820.
  343. ^ Whitehorn, Alan (2015). The Armenian Genocide: The Essential Reference Guide: The Essential Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. pp. 83, 218. ISBN 978-1610696883.
  344. ^ "Pogroms". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  345. ^ Mawdsley 2007, p. 287.
  346. ^ Horne & Kramer 2001, ch 1–2, esp. p. 76.
  347. ^ The claim of franc-tireurs in Belgium has been rejected: Horne & Kramer 2001, ch 3–4
  348. ^ Horne & Kramer 2001, ch 5–8.
  349. ^ Keegan 1998, pp. 82–83.
  350. ^ "Search Results (+(war:"worldwari")) : Veterans History Project". American Folklife Center, Library of Congress. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  351. ^ Phillimore & Bellot 1919, pp. 4–64.
  352. ^ Ferguson 1999, pp. 368–369.
  353. ^ Blair 2005.
  354. ^ Cook 2006, pp. 637–665.
  355. ^ "Максим Оськин – Неизвестные трагедии Первой мировой Пленные Дезертиры Беженцы – стр 24 – Читаем онлайн". Profismart.ru. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  356. ^ Speed 1990.
  357. ^ Ferguson 1999, Chapter 13.
  358. ^ Morton 1992.
  359. ^ Bass 2002, p. 107.
  360. ^ "The Mesopotamia campaign". British National Archives. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
  361. ^ "Prisoners of Turkey: Men of Kut Driven along like beasts". Stolen Years: Australian Prisoners of War. Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
  362. ^ "ICRC in WWI: overview of activities". Icrc.org. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  363. ^ "Germany: Notes". Time. 1 September 1924. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  364. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 1189.
  365. ^ a b Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 1001
  366. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 117.
  367. ^ Mukhtar, Mohammed (2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0810866041. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  368. ^ "How Ethiopian prince scuppered Germany's WW1 plans". BBC News. 25 September 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  369. ^ Ficquet, Éloi (2014). The Life and Times of Lïj Iyasu of Ethiopia: New Insights. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 185. ISBN 9783643904768.
  370. ^ Zewde, Bahru. A history. p. 126.
  371. ^ Ficquet, Éloi (2014). The Life and Times of Lïj Iyasu of Ethiopia: New Insights. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 62. ISBN 9783643904768.
  372. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 1069.
  373. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 884.
  374. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 335.
  375. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 219.
  376. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 209.
  377. ^ a b Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 596
  378. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 826.
  379. ^ Dennis Mack Smith. 1997. Modern Italy; A Political History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. p. 284.
  380. ^ Aubert, Roger (1981). "Chapter 37: The Outbreak of World War I". In Hubert Jedin; John Dolan (eds.). History of the Church. The Church in the industrial age. 9. Translated by Resch, Margit. London: Burns & Oates. p. 521. ISBN 978-0-86012-091-9.
  381. ^ "Who's Who – Pope Benedict XV". firstworldwar.com. 22 August 2009.
  382. ^ "Merely For the Record": The Memoirs of Donald Christopher Smith 1894–1980. By Donald Christopher Smith. Edited by John William Cox, Jr. Bermuda.
  383. ^ Pennell, Catriona (2012). A Kingdom United: Popular Responses to the Outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959058-2.
  384. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 584.
  385. ^ O'Halpin, Eunan, The Decline of the Union: British Government in Ireland, 1892–1920, (Dublin, 1987)
  386. ^ Lehmann & van der Veer 1999, p. 62.
  387. ^ Brock, Peter, These Strange Criminals: An Anthology of Prison Memoirs by Conscientious Objectors to Military Service from the Great War to the Cold War, p. 14, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8020-8707-8
  388. ^ "Soviet Union – Uzbeks". Country-data.com. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  389. ^ Richard Pipes (1990). The Russian Revolution. Knopf Doubleday. p. 407. ISBN 9780307788573.
  390. ^ a b Seton-Watson, Christopher. 1967. Italy from Liberalism to Fascism: 1870 to 1925. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. p. 471
  391. ^ Cockfield 1997, pp. 171–237.
  392. ^ Sowers, Steven W. "Legacy of 1917 and 1918". Michigan State University.
  393. ^ Ward, Alan J. (1974). "Lloyd George and the 1918 Irish conscription crisis". Historical Journal. 17 (1): 107–129. doi:10.1017/S0018246X00005689.
  394. ^ "The Conscription Crisis". CBC. 2001.
  395. ^ a b "Commonwealth Parliament from 1901 to World War I". Parliament of Australia. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  396. ^ J.M. Main, Conscription: the Australian debate, 1901–1970 (1970) abstract Archived 7 July 2015 at Archive.today
  397. ^ Havighurst 1985, p. 131.
  398. ^ Chelmsford, J.E. "Clergy and Man-Power", The Times 15 April 1918, p. 12
  399. ^ Chambers, John Whiteclay (1987). To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905820-1.
  400. ^ Zinn, Howard (2003). A People's History of the United States. Harper Collins. p. 134.[edition needed]
  401. ^ Hastings, Max (2013). Catastrophe: Europe goes to War 1914. London: Collins. pp. 30, 140. ISBN 978-0-00-746764-8.
  402. ^ Stevenson 1988, p. [page needed].
  403. ^ Zeman, Z. A. B. (1971). Diplomatic History of the First World War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-00300-3.
  404. ^ See Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1921). Scott, James Brown (ed.). Official Statements of War Aims and Peace Proposals: December 1916 to November 1918. Washington, D.C., The Endowment.
  405. ^ R.G. Collingwood An Autobiography, 1939, p. 90.
  406. ^ Jones, Heather (2013). "As the centenary approaches: the regeneration of First World War historiography". Historical Journal. 56 (3): 857–878 [p. 858]. doi:10.1017/S0018246X13000216.
  407. ^ "John McCrae". Nature. Historica. 100 (2521): 487–488. 1918. Bibcode:1918Natur.100..487.. doi:10.1038/100487b0. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011.
  408. ^ David, Evans (1918). "John McCrae". Nature. 100 (2521): 487–488. Bibcode:1918Natur.100..487.. doi:10.1038/100487b0.
  409. ^ "Monumental Undertaking". kclibrary.org. 21 September 2015.
  410. ^ "Commemoration website". 1914.org. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  411. ^ "French, German Presidents Mark World War I Anniversary". France News.Net. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  412. ^ Sheftall, Mark David (2010). Altered Memories of the Great War: Divergent Narratives of Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-883-9.
  413. ^ a b c Hynes, Samuel Lynn (1991). A war imagined: the First World War and English culture. Atheneum. pp. i–xii. ISBN 978-0-689-12128-9.
  414. ^ a b c Todman 2005, pp. 153–221.
  415. ^ Fussell, Paul (2000). The Great War and modern memory. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–78. ISBN 978-0-19-513332-5. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  416. ^ a b Todman 2005, pp. xi–xv.
  417. ^ Roden.
  418. ^ Wohl 1979.
  419. ^ Tucker & Roberts 2005, pp. 108–1086.
  420. ^ Kitchen, Martin. "The Ending of World War One, and the Legacy of Peace". BBC.
  421. ^ "World War II". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  422. ^ Chickering 2004.
  423. ^ Rubinstein, W.D. (2004). Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-582-50601-5.
  424. ^ Henn, Peter (9 March 2015). "Britain Finally pays off last of First World War debt as George Osborne redeems £1.9bn". Daily Express.
  425. ^ Noakes, Lucy (2006). Women in the British Army: War and the Gentle Sex, 1907–1948. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-39056-9.
  426. ^ Green 1938, p. cxxvi.
  427. ^ Anton Kaes; Martin Jay; Edward Dimendberg, eds. (1994). "The Treaty of Versailles: The Reparations Clauses". The Weimar Republic Sourcebook. University of California Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0520909601.
  428. ^ Marks 1978, pp. 231–232
  429. ^ a b Marks 1978, p. 237
  430. ^ Marks 1978, pp. 223–234
  431. ^ Stone, Norman (2008). World War One: A Short History. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-103156-9.
  432. ^ Marks 1978, p. 233
  433. ^ Hall, Allan (28 September 2010). "First World War officially ends". The Telegraph. Berlin. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  434. ^ Suddath, Claire (4 October 2010). "Why Did World War I Just End?". Time. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  435. ^ "World War I to finally end for Germany this weekend". CNN. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  436. ^ MacMillan, Margaret (25 December 2010). "Ending the War to End All Wars". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  437. ^ a b "From Wristwatches To Radio, How World War I Ushered in the Modern World". NPR.

Bibliography

Sources

Primary sources

Additional reading

Historiography and memory

  • Deak, John (2014). "The Great War and the Forgotten Realm: The Habsburg Monarchy and the First World War". Journal of Modern History. 86 (2): 336–380. doi:10.1086/675880.
  • Iriye, Akira (2014). "The Historiographic Impact of the Great War". Diplomatic History. 38 (4): 751–762. doi:10.1093/dh/dhu035.
  • Jones, Heather (2013). "As the centenary approaches: the regeneration of First World War historiography". Historical Journal. 56 (3): 857–878. doi:10.1017/s0018246x13000216.
  • Jones, Heather (2014). "Goodbye to all that?: Memory and meaning in the commemoration of the first world war". Juncture. 20 (4): 287–291. doi:10.1111/j.2050-5876.2014.00767.x.
  • Kitchen, James E.; Miller, Alisa; Rowe, Laura, eds. (2011). Other Combatants, Other Fronts: Competing Histories of the First World War. Excerpt
  • Kramer, Alan (2014). "Recent Historiography of the First World War – Part I". Journal of Modern European History. 12 (1): 5–27. doi:10.17104/1611-8944_2014_1_5.
  • Kramer, Alan (2014). "Recent Historiography of the First World War (Part II)". Journal of Modern European History. 12 (2): 155–174. doi:10.17104/1611-8944_2014_2_155.
  • Mulligan, William (2014). "The Trial Continues: New Directions in the Study of the Origins of the First World War". English Historical Review. 129 (538): 639–666. doi:10.1093/ehr/ceu139.
  • Reynolds, David (2014). The Long Shadow: The Legacies of the Great War in the Twentieth Century. Excerpt and text search
  • Sanborn, Joshua (2013). "Russian Historiography on the Origins of the First World War Since the Fischer Controversy". Journal of Contemporary History. 48 (2): 350–362. doi:10.1177/0022009412472716.
  • Sharp, Heather (2014). "Representing Australia's Involvement in the First World War: Discrepancies between Public Discourses and School History Textbooks from 1916 to 1936". Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society. 6 (1): 1–23. doi:10.3167/jemms.2014.060101.
  • Trout, Stephen (2013). On the Battlefield of Memory: The First World War and American Remembrance, 1919–1941.
  • Turan, Ömer (2014). ""Turkish Historiography of the First World War". Middle East". Critique. 23 (2): 241–257. doi:10.1080/19436149.2014.905079.
  • Winter, Jay, ed. (2014). The Cambridge History of the First World War. Cambridge University Press, (2 vol.)

External links

Listen to this article (3 parts) · (info)
Spoken Wikipedia icon
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 2006-06-24 , and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Animated maps

Library guides


本页面最后更新于2020-09-07 01:07,点击更新本页查看原网页

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器