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Xocó language Redirected from Xokó language

Xocó
Shoko
Native toBrazil
RegionSergipe, Alagoas
Extinct(date missing)[1]
Unclassified; not clear if a single language
Language codes
ISO 639-3erroneously subsumed under kzw
Glottologxoco1235  Xoco

Xocó (Chocó, Shokó) is an extinct and poorly attested language or languages of Brazil that is not known to be related to other languages. It is known from three populations: Xokó (Chocó) in Sergipe, Kariri-Xocó (Kariri-Shoko, Cariri-Chocó) in Alagoas, and Xukuru-Kariri (Xucuru-Kariri, Xucuru-Cariri) in Alagoas. It is not clear if these were one language or three. It is only known from a few dozen words from one Kariri-Xoco elder and three Xukuru-Kariri elders in 1961.

It was originally spoken along the Piancó River is an area that is now a suburb of Porto Real do Colégio.[2]

In ISO encoding, the language was conflated with the Kariri family as ISO 639-3 [kzw] 'Karirí-Xocó'; Ethnologue does not indicate if this was a conscious decision.

Other languages with this name

Xoco, Xukuru, and Kariri are all common generic names in the region. See Kariri languages.

Vocabulary

Pompeu (1958)

Chocó (Xocó) vocabulary collected in Colégio, Alagoas:[3]

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Chocó
fogo fire atsá, tsá
água water taká
cachimbo smoking pipe pupú
homem man mãjikêô

Note: Loukotka (1968) transcribes 'man' as mazyikeːoː.[2]

Meader (1978)

Five Xukuru-Kariri word lists collected by Menno Kroeker in Alagoas in 1961 are published in Meader (1978).[4]

Words recorded from an elderly male pajé (shaman) in Porto Real do Colégio:

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xukuru-Kariri
chuva rain sèhóιdzˈὲʔà
fumo smoke bˈázè
lua moon kˈriũavi
mandioca manioc gˈrïgɔ
menino boy semˈentiais
mulher woman spˈikwais
rio river oːpˈara
sol sun kràšùtˈó
terra earth aːtsιhˈi
vento wind mə̀núsˈi
batata potato dˈódsákà
cachimbo smoking pipe catʔokə
Colégio (cidade) Colégio (city) simidˈo
deus God sõsˈeh
dinheiro money mεrεkiˈa
farinha flour tˈónà
feijão bean nˈódsákà
gado cattle krˈazɔ
galinha chicken cáːkìʔ
luz light kápˈòèr
ovelha sheep sábˈòèR
peru turkey brεfˈεlia
porco pig korˈe
soldado soldier òlˈófò

Words recorded from Alfredo Caboquim, a pajé (shaman), and his brother Miguel Caboquim in Fazenda Conta, Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas:

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xukuru-Kariri
carne de boi beef ˈbeiñõ
chuva rain šualya
dê-me fogo para o cigarro Give me fire for the cigarette. àòšˈínòʔ ìnˈísìà sˈèdàià
lua / moça moon / girl seːya
mãe mother isá
milho corn matˈilya
não (mentira) no (lie) eːyo
nariz nose nˈəmbi
pai dad étfˈὲ
anzol fish hook èáyˈɔ̀ / alyɔ (?)
batata potato dˈotsakə
bebida de mandioca manioc drink gúlížˈɔ̀ (gálížˈɔ̀)
bode goat filˈisakə
boi ox léfétˈìa
cachorro dog it(ə)lˈo
cachorro de brinquedo toy dog ìt(ə)lˈó tə̀núnšweˈì
dança indígena indigenous dance áʔálˈèndà
deus God àʔúdéódályˈà
estrangeiro foreigner, stranger kóbˈè
farinha flour tititsia
feijão bean nˈatsakə
folga dos índios indigenous holiday arikulilyˈa / kèːšátíkáˈya (?)
fumando cachimbo to smoke a pipe puèpùˈa
galinha chicken sˈetˈáduàlyà
gato cat atašeškia
índia indigenous woman sétsˈòníká
lagarto lizard šˈua atˈežo / tˈeyu (?)
mulato mulatto mulatι̃nkya
negro black person tùpíə̃̀nkyà
padre father ĩŋklaˈišoa
(pausa) – considerando as palavras pause (when thinking of words) ə̃hə̃
peru turkey aotˈisakə
porco pig àːlˈé
praia (?) beach (?) práiˈà
quarto de homem men's quarters subεbˈe
como vai? How are you? àkàkˈáumà
vou bem, obrigado I am fine, thank you. íkàkˈə́
senhor sir ˈĩŋklai
vamos embora Let's go. òːšˈóuà
homem mais velho older man tošˈa / aošιnə̃ŋklainšoa taškiˈa

Words recorded from an elderly farmer in Fazenda Conta, Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas:

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xukuru-Kariri
água water oiyˈa
carne de boi beef aòtˈísiə̀
fogo fire tóˈè
aguardente aguardente kóšákˈà
bode goat sákúlˈὲ, sákúlˈègò
bonito beautiful atilišˈĩ
brancos white people ə̃́nkláʔˈì
cabelo crespo (de negro) curly hair (of black people) tuʔˈĩ
café coffee tópˈì
cigarro cigarette àlísíˈàx
índio indigenous man / person sέtsˈò
mãe de Jesus mother of Jesus (Virgin Mary) kwə́ntópˈə̃̀ atoayˈə
negra black man (i)atuayˈa
negro black woman túpíyˈà
porco pig šíə̃̀ntì
tatu armadillo rṍmpˈə̀tì

Words recorded from João Candido da Silva, a young farmer in Fazenda Conta, Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas:

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xukuru-Kariri
fumo smoke šíšúˈà
dança dance arikurˈi
deus God dédùˈá / íŋklàˈíx

Words recorded from José Fermino da Silva of Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas:

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xukuru-Kariri
água water óiyˈàh
fogo para o cigarro fire for cigarette tòˈéh asendendisi / tòˈéh pàrə̀ns-ˈíáx
batata potato dˈótsákà
branco white person kràiʔˈé
caboclo caboclo sǽtsˈùx
cachimbo smoking pipe pua / pue
deus God dèdˈúa
feijão bean nˈótsákà
negra black kòbˈéh
obrigado thank you bèréˈɔ́
pau (claraíba) stick (clear) frˈéžɔ̀ìž
pau (d'arco) stick (of bow) paìpˈέ

References

  1. ^ Xocó at Ethnologue (10th ed., 1984). Note: Data may come from the 9th edition (1978).
  2. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  3. ^ Pompeu Sobrinho, Thomaz. 1958. Línguas Tapuias desconhecidas do Nordeste: Alguns vocabulários inéditos. Boletim de Antropologia (Fortaleza-Ceará) 2. 3-19.
  4. ^ Meader, Robert E. (1978). Indios do Nordeste: Levantamento sobre os remanescentes tribais do nordeste brasileiro (in Portuguese). Brasilia: SIL International.

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