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主题:Coronavirus disease 2019

Coronavirus disease 2019 portal

COVID-19 symptoms
Symptoms of COVID-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; /ˈkˌvɪdnnˈtn/) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei China, and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production, diarrhea, and sore throat are less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 23 March 2020, the rate of deaths per number of diagnosed cases is 4.4 percent; however, it ranges from 0.2 percent to 15 percent, according to age group and other health problems.


The virus is typically spread from one person to another via respiratory droplets produced during coughing. It may also be spread from touching contaminated surfaces and then touching one's face. The virus can live on surfaces for 4 to 72 hours. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between two and fourteen days, with an average of five days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.


Recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washing, physical distancing (maintaining distance from others), and keeping hands away from the face. The use of masks is recommended for those who suspect they have the virus and their caregivers, but not for the general public, although simple cloth masks may be used by those who desire them. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. Read more...

Recent news

24 March 2020 – 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
2020 coronavirus pandemic in New Zealand
New Zealand reports 40 new cases of coronavirus, and three new probable cases. (Stuff NZ)
2020 coronavirus pandemic in India
Complete lockdowns are announced in 30 states and union territories of India in an effort to stop the spread of coronavirus. (The Times of India)
23 March 2020 – Impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic on cinema, 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in mainland China
About 500 cinemas reopen in China. (Deadline)
23 March 2020 – Impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic on television, 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Spain
Italian actress and former beauty pageant winner Lucia Bosè dies aged 89 from pneumonia complicated by COVID-19, becoming the first film star to die during the pandemic. (Billboard)
23 March 2020 – Socio-economic impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
2020 coronavirus pandemic in the Republic of Ireland, 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United Kingdom
Fast food restaurant chain McDonald's closes all of its restaurants in the United Kingdom and Ireland citing the safety of its employees and customers amid the coronavirus pandemic. (The Guardian)
Economy of the United States, 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United States
The United States Senate votes down for a second time a stimulus relief package. (Fox 4) (CNBC) (Washington Post)

More current events...

Covid-19-curves-graphic-social-v3.gif

Disease progress

Locations[a] Cases[b] Deaths Recov.[c] Ref.
175 378,849 16,514 102,069
China (mainland)[d] 81,093 3,270 72,703 [1]
Italy[e] 63,927 6,077 7,432 [4]
United States[f] 46,414 610 314 [6][5]
Spain 35,068 2,299 3,355 [7]
Germany 29,056 123 453 [8]
Iran[g] 23,049 1,812 8,376 [9][10]
France[h] 19,856 860 2,200 [11][5]
South Korea 9,037 120 3,507 [12]
Switzerland[i] 8,795 120 131 [13][14]
United Kingdom[j] 6,661 335 140 [19][20]
Netherlands[k] 4,769 214 [22]
Austria 4,474 21 [23][24]
Belgium 3,743 88 350 [25]
Norway[l] 2,625 10 [26]
Portugal 2,060 23 14 [28]
Sweden[m] 2,059 33 16 [29][30]
Canada 2,020 24 112 [31]
Australia[n] 1,887 7 118 [5][32]
Brazil 1,629 25 2 [5][33]
Denmark[o] 1,572 24 [35]
Turkey 1,529 37 0 [39]
Malaysia 1,518 14 159 [40]
Israel 1,238 1 37 [41]
Czech Republic 1,236 1 7 [42]
Japan 1,128 42 272 [43][44]
Ireland 1,125 6 5 [45]
Ecuador 981 18 3 [46]
Luxembourg 875 8 6 [47]
Pakistan 875 6 6 [48]
Poland 749 8 1 [49]
Chile 746 1 11 [50][51]
Thailand 721 1 52 [52][53]
Cruise ship side view.svg Diamond Princess[p] 712 11 587 [54][55]
Finland[q] 700 1 10 [5][59]
Greece 695 17 19 [60]
Iceland 588 1 51 [61]
Indonesia 579 49 30 [62][63]
Romania 576 6 73 [64]
Saudi Arabia 562 0 19 [65]
Singapore 509 2 152 [66][67]
Qatar 501 0 37 [68]
India 468 9 34 [69]
Philippines 462 33 18 [70]
Slovenia 442 3 [71]
Russia[r] 438 0 17 [75]
South Africa 402 0 2 [76][77]
Peru 395 5 1 [78]
Bahrain 377 2 164 [79]
Mexico 367 4 4 [5]
Egypt[s] 366 19 68 [80]
Hong Kong 356 4 101 [81]
Estonia 352 0 4 [82]
Panama 345 6 1 [83][84]
Croatia 315 0 5 [85]
Colombia 277 3 5 [86][87]
Lebanon 267 4 8 [88][89]
Argentina 266 4 27 [90]
Iraq 266 23 62 [91]
Serbia 249 3 3 [92][5]
Dominican Republic 245 3 3 [5]
Armenia 235 0 2 [5]
Algeria 230 17 65 [5]
Bulgaria 201 3 3 [93]
United Arab Emirates 198 2 41 [94]
Taiwan 195 2 29 [95][96]
Kuwait 189 0 30 [97][98]
Slovakia 185 0 7 [99][100]
Latvia 180 0 1 [5][101]
Lithuania 179 1 1 [102]
San Marino 175 20 4 [103]
Hungary 167 8 21 [104]
Uruguay 162 0 0 [5][105]
Costa Rica 158 2 2 [106][5]
New Zealand 145 0 12 [107]
Morocco 143 4 5 [108]
North Macedonia 136 2 1 [109][110]
Andorra 133 1 1 [111]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 132 1 2 [5]
Jordan 127 0 1 [5][112]
Vietnam 122 0 17 [113]
Cyprus[t] 116 1 3 [5]
Moldova 109 1 2 [114]
Malta 107 0 2 [115]
Albania 104 4 5 [116]
Burkina Faso 99 4 5 [117]
Sri Lanka 97 0 2 [118]
Brunei 91 0 2 [119]
Tunisia 89 3 1 [5]
Cambodia 86 0 2 [120][121]
Belarus 81 0 22 [122][123]
Senegal 79 0 5 [5]
Venezuela 84 0 15 [124]
Ukraine 73 3 1 [125]
Azerbaijan 72 1 10 [126]
Oman 66 0 17 [127]
Kazakhstan 62 0 0 [128]
Georgia 61 0 8 [129][130]
Palestine 59 0 17 [131]
Cameroon 56 0 2 [5]
Liechtenstein 51 0 0 [132]
Trinidad and Tobago 51 0 0 [5][133]
Uzbekistan 46 0 0 [5]
Afghanistan 40 1 1 [5]
Cuba[u] 40 1 0 [134]
Northern Cyprus 38 0 3 [135]
DR Congo 36 2 0 [5]
Mauritius 36 2 0 [5]
Nigeria 36 1 2 [136][137]
Rwanda 36 0 0 [5][138]
Bangladesh 33 3 3 [139]
Kosovo 31 0 0 [140]
Bolivia 28 0 0 [141]
Ghana 27 2 0 [142][5]
Honduras 27 0 0 [143]
Montenegro 27 1 0 [144][5]
Ivory Coast 25 0 1 [145]
Macau 25 0 10 [146]
Monaco 23 0 1 [147][5]
Paraguay 22 1 0 [148][149]
Guatemala 20 1 0 [5]
Guernsey 20 0 0 [150]
Jamaica 19 1 2 [5][151]
Togo 18 0 0 [152][5]
Barbados 17 0 0 [153]
Jersey 16 0 0 [150]
Kenya 16 0 0 [5]
Kyrgyzstan 16 0 0 [154]
Isle of Man 13 0 0 [155]
Maldives 13 0 3 [156]
Madagascar 12 0 0 [157]
Tanzania 12 0 0 [158]
Ethiopia 11 0 0 [5]
Mongolia 10 0 0 [5]
Equatorial Guinea 9 0 0 [5]
Uganda 9 0 0 [159][5]
Seychelles 7 0 0 [160]
Benin 5 0 0 [5]
Gabon 5 1 0 [5]
Guyana 5 1 0 [161]
Haiti 5 0 0 [162]
Suriname 5 0 0 [163]
Bahamas 4 0 0 [164]
Republic of the Congo 4 0 0 [5]
Eswatini 4 0 0 [165]
Guinea 4 0 1 [166]
Namibia 4 0 0 [5]
Cape Verde 3 0 0 [167]
Central African Republic 3 0 0 [5]
Djibouti 3 0 0 [5]
El Salvador 3 0 0 [168]
Fiji 3 0 0 [169]
Liberia 3 0 0 [5][170]
Zambia 3 0 0 [5]
Zimbabwe 3 1 0 [5]
Angola 2 0 0 [171]
Bhutan 2 0 0 [5]
Gambia 2 1 0 [5]
Mauritania 2 0 0 [172]
Myanmar 2 0 0 [5]
Nepal 2 0 1 [173][5]
Nicaragua 2 0 0 [174]
Niger 2 0 0 [175]
Saint Lucia 2 0 0 [5]
Sudan 2 1 0 [5]
Antigua and Barbuda 1 0 0 [5]
Belize 1 0 0 [176]
Chad 1 0 0 [177]
Dominica 1 0 0 [5]
East Timor 1 0 0 [178]
Eritrea 1 0 0 [5]
Grenada 1 0 0 [5]
Mozambique 1 0 0 [5]
Papua New Guinea 1 0 0 [179]
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1 0 0 [5]
Somalia 1 0 0 [5]
Syria 1 0 0 [180]
Vatican City 1 0 0 [5]
As of 23 March 2020 (UTC) · History of cases: China, international
Notes
  1. ^ Countries and territories, and one international conveyance where cases were diagnosed. Nationality and location of original infection may vary. In some countries, the cases cover several territories, as noted accordingly.
  2. ^ Reported cumulative confirmed cases. The actual number of infections and cases are likely higher than reported, but impossible to ascertain.
  3. ^ Recovered cases. All recoveries may not be reported. "–" denotes that no reliable data is currently available for that territory, not that the value is zero.
  4. ^ China
    Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 12 February 2020 and onwards in the province of Hubei.
  5. ^ Italy
    Only at-risk people showing symptoms have been tested from 27 February 2020 and onwards.[2][3]
  6. ^ United States
    1. Includes 77 cases and 3 deaths in the US territories:
     • Guam (29 cases; 1 death)[5]
     • Puerto Rico (31 cases; 2 deaths)[5]
     • the U.S. Virgin Islands (17 cases)[5]
    as well as cases identified on the Grand Princess.

    2. Data is from unofficial trackers and not from the official Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  7. ^ Iran
    Due to a shortage of resources, testing is restricted to severe cases.[citation needed] Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 9 March 2020 and onwards.
  8. ^ France
    Includes 230 cases and 2 deaths in overseas regions:
     • French Guiana (20 cases)[5]
     • Guadeloupe (62 cases; 1 death)[5]
     • Martinique (53 cases; 1 death)[5]
     • Mayotte (24 cases)[5]
     • Réunion (71 cases)[5]
    and 37 cases in collectivities:
     • French Polynesia (18 cases)[5]
     • New Caledonia (8 cases)[5]
     • Saint Barthélemy (3 cases)[5]
     • Saint Martin (8 cases)[5]
  9. ^ Switzerland
    While there are more positive cases in Switzerland, the figure reported here is only the number of confirmed cases.
  10. ^ United Kingdom
    Includes 31 cases, 1 death and 5 recoveries in the British Overseas Territories, not counted in the UK government sources:
     • Akrotiri and Dhekelia (3 cases)[15]
     • Bermuda (6 cases)[16]
     • The Cayman Islands (5 cases; 1 death)[17]
     • Gibraltar (15 cases; 5 recoveries)[18]
     • Montserrat (1 case)[5]
     • Turks and Caicos Islands (1 case)[5]
  11. ^ Netherlands
    1. Includes 14 cases and 1 death in constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean:
     • Aruba (9 cases)[5]
     • Curaçao (4 cases; 1 death)[5]
     • Sint Maarten (2 cases)[5]
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[21]
  12. ^ Norway
    1. From 13 March 2020, testing of the normal population was discontinued, and is now only reserved for health professionals and acutely ill people in vulnerable groups.

    2. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health states that there are more infected people in Norway than the figures show. The dark figures are presumed to be higher because of limited testing.[26] Nevertheless, the total number of tests per capita was as of 20 March comparatively high in Norway.[27]

  13. ^ Sweden
    Testing of suspected infections has been cut back in the whole country in the period around 12 March 2020, in order to focus efforts on people with increased risk of serious illness and complications.
  14. ^ Australia
    Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  15. ^ Denmark
    1. Includes 122 cases in constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark:
     • Faroe Islands (118 cases, 0 deaths)[34][35]
     • Greenland (4 cases, 0 deaths)[36][35]
    2. The Danish Government does not report the number of recoveries.[37]

    3. From 12 March 2020, the criteria for testing has been changed; only people with more serious symptoms and health professionals are being tested.[38]

  16. ^ Diamond Princess
    The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is neither included in the Japanese government's official count nor in United Kingdom's one. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  17. ^ Finland
    1. Includes 2 cases in the autonomous region of Åland Islands.[56]

    2. Testing is limited to severely ill or at-risk patients and social or health care workers.[57][58]

  18. ^ Russia
    Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". One fatality was not officially recorded by the Russian authorities as caused by coronavirus.[72][73][74]
  19. ^ Egypt
    Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  20. ^ Cyprus
    Excluding Northern Cyprus.
  21. ^ Cuba
    Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
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About the virus

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has been designated a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO).

SARS-CoV-2 has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, from which it likely originated. An intermediate animal reservoir such as a pangolin is also thought to be involved in its introduction to humans. From a taxonomic perspective, SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a strain of the species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). Read more...

About viruses

A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to quickly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. Unlike most living things, viruses do not have cells that divide; new viruses are assembled in the infected host cell. But unlike still simpler infectious agents like prions, viruses contain genes, which gives them the ability to mutate and evolve. Over 4,800 species of viruses have been discovered.

The origins of viruses are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. A virus consists of two or three parts: genes, made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; a protein coat that protects the genes; and in some viruses, an envelope of fat that surrounds the protein coat (which makes them vulnerable to soap) and is used, in combination with specific receptors, to enter a new host cell. Viruses vary in shape from the simple helical and icosahedral to more complex structures. Viruses range in size from 20 to 300 nanometres; it would take 33,000 to 500,000 of them, side by side, to stretch to 1 centimetre (0.39 in).

Viruses spread in many ways. Just as many viruses are very specific as to which host species or tissue they attack, each species of virus relies on a particular method for propagation. Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by insects and other organisms, known as vectors. Some viruses of humans and other animals are spread by exposure to infected bodily fluids. Viruses such as influenza are spread through the air by droplets of moisture when people cough or sneeze. Viruses such as norovirus are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, which involves the contamination of hands, food and water. Rotavirus is often spread by direct contact with infected children. The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is transmitted by bodily fluids transferred during sex. Others, such as the dengue virus, are spread by blood-sucking insects. Read more...

Young polio victims receiving physiotherapy in the 1950s

The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. Epidemics caused by viruses began when human behaviour changed during the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago, when humans developed more densely populated agricultural communities. This allowed viruses to spread rapidly and subsequently to become endemic. Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences.

Smallpox and measles viruses are among the oldest that infect humans. Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. The viruses were later carried to the New World by Europeans during the time of the Spanish Conquests, but the indigenous people had no natural resistance to the viruses and millions of them died during epidemics. Influenza pandemics have been recorded since 1580, and they have occurred with increasing frequency in subsequent centuries. The pandemic of 1918–19, in which 40–50 million died in less than a year, was one of the most devastating in history. Read more...

Socio-economic impact

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease and efforts to quarantine it. As the pandemic has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector.

Economics

Economic turmoil associated with the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has wide-ranging and severe impacts upon financial markets, including stock, bond, and commodity (including crude oil and gold) markets. Major events included a described Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war after failing to reach an OPEC+ agreement that resulted in a collapse of crude oil prices and a stock market crash in March 2020. The effects upon markets are among the many socio-economic impacts of the pandemic.

Movement of the DJIA between January 2017 and March 2020, showing the all-time high in February, and the crash in February and March during the COVID-19 pandemic

The 2020 stock market crash is a global stock market crash that began on 20 February 2020 during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. The Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500 Index, and the NASDAQ-100 all fell into a correction on 27 February during one of the worst trading weeks since the financial crisis of 2007–08. Markets over the following week (2–6 March) became extremely volatile, with swings of 3% or more being made per daily session (except for 6 March). On 9 March, all three Wall Street indices fell more than 7% and most global markets reported severe contractions, mainly in response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic and a described Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war. This became colloquially known as Black Monday, and at the time was the worst drop since the Great Recession in 2008.

On 8 March 2020, Saudi Arabia initiated a price war with Russia, triggering a major fall in the price of oil, with US oil prices falling by 34%, crude oil falling by 26%, and brent oil falling by 24%. The price war was triggered by a breakup in dialogue between the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and Russia over proposed oil production cuts in the midst of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Oil prices had already fallen 30% since the start of the year due to a drop in demand. The price war is one of the major causes of the currently ongoing global stock market crash.

Sports

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has caused a disruption to the 2020 worldwide sporting calendar, the most significant since World War II. Across the world and to varying degrees, sports events have been cancelled or postponed.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has impacted the 2020 Summer Olympics. Many qualifying matches have been cancelled or postponed. There has been concern that the games might be postponed to a later date than planned, or cancelled. The International Olympic Committee announced on 22 March 2020 that within four weeks, a decision will be made if Tokyo 2020 will be staged as planned or if a rescheduling is necessary.

Xenophobia and racism

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, which was first reported in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019, has led to increased prejudice, xenophobia, discrimination, violence and racism against Chinese people and people of East Asian and Southeast Asian descent and appearance around the world.

Culture

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact on aviation industry due to the resulting travel restrictions as well as slump in demand among travelers. Significant reductions in passenger numbers has resulted in planes flying empty between airports and the cancellation of flights.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had a substantial impact on the film industry. Across the world and to varying degrees, cinemas and movie theaters have been closed, festivals have been cancelled or postponed, and film releases have been moved to future dates or delayed indefinitely. As cinemas and movie theaters closed, the global box office dropped by billions of dollars, streaming became more popular, and the stock of film exhibitors dropped dramatically. Many blockbusters originally scheduled to be released between March and July were postponed or canceled around the world, with film productions also halted.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has shut down or delayed production of television programs in several countries.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has impacted religion in various ways, including the cancellation of the worship services of various faiths, the closure of Sunday Schools, as well as the cancellation of pilgrimages surrounding observances and festivals. Many churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples have offered worship through livestream amidst the pandemic. Relief wings of religious organisations have dispatched disinfection supplies, powered air purifying respirators, face shields, gloves, coronavirus nucleic acid detection reagents, ventilators, patient monitors, syringe pumps, infusion pumps, and food to affected areas. Other churches have offered free COVID-19 testing to the public. Adherents of many religions have gathered together to pray for an end to the COVID-19 pandemic, for those affected by it, as well as for God to give physicians and scientists the wisdom to combat the disease; in the United States, President Donald Trump designated 15 March 2020 as a National Day of Prayer for Americans to seek God's help amidst the pandemic.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has caused many events around the world to be cancelled or postponed.

Politics and education

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic affected the political systems of multiple countries causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians, and rescheduling of elections due to fears of spreading the virus.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the widespread closures of schools and universities.

Topics

Get involved!

Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page.

Interwiki links

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

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