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[Portal] Mountains

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Introduction

View of the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains as seen from Tucson, Arizona.
View of the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains as seen from Tucson, Arizona.
Mount Ararat, as seen from Armenia.

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing and skiing.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

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Roche moutonnée near Myot Hill, Scotland

In glaciology, a roche moutonnée (or sheepback) is a rock formation created by the passing of a glacier. The passage of glacier ice over underlying bedrock often results in asymmetric erosional forms as a result of abrasion on the "stoss" (upstream) side of the rock and plucking on the "lee" (downstream) side. These erosional features are seen on scales of less than a metre to several hundred metres. Read more...

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North Pare Mountains

The Pare Mountains are a mountain range in northeastern Tanzania, north west of the Usambara Mountains. Administratively, the mountains are a part of Kilimanjaro Region. There are two mountain ranges - North and South Pare ranges, which rise to 2,463 m at Shengena Peak. They form part of the Eastern Arc of mountains. The Pare people live in the area.

The Pare Mountains are accessible by 4WD, but there are few roads in the South Pares. Species in the Pare mountains include the endemic South Pare white-eye (Zosterops winifredae), mountain buzzard (Buteo oreophilus), olive woodpecker (Mesopicos griseocephalus), moustached tinkerbird (Pogoniulus leucomystax) and the African hill babbler (Pseudoalcippe abyssinica). Read more...

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A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains or mountain ranges. The term is a borrowed from Spanish, with the same meaning. The Spanish word originates from cordilla, a diminutive of "cuerda" or "rope". It is most commonly used in the field of physical geography.

The term is particularly applied to the various ranges of the Andes of South America, and less frequently to other mountain ranges in the "ridge" that rims the Pacific Ocean. In Colombia and Venezuela the cordilleras are named according to their position: Cordillera Occidental, Central, and Oriental. Various local names identify the cordilleras in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. Read more...

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Spindrift on stormy sea

Spindrift (more rarely spoondrift) usually refers to spray, particularly to the spray blown from cresting waves during a gale. This spray, which "drifts" in the direction of the gale, is one of the characteristics of a wind speed of 8 Beaufort and higher at sea.

In Great Britain "spindrift" is the telltale sign used by mariners to define a Force 8 (Beaufort Scale) wind (not higher) when observed at sea. See this example of information provided by Lymington Harbour authority, Hampshire, England, UK, explaining the whole scale, the associated wind speeds, and its telltale signs. Text from the site states:

Force 8, defined as "Gale". Wind speed 39-46 mph, equal to 34-40 knots. Inland, twigs break off trees; progress generally impeded. At sea, moderately high waves of greater length; edges of crests begin to break into spindrift; foam is blown in well-marked streaks along the direction of the wind.

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Selected skiing article

Free heels are a defining characteristic of ski touring

Ski touring is skiing in the backcountry on unmarked or unpatrolled areas. Touring is typically done off-piste and outside of ski resorts, and may extend over a period of more than one day. It is similar to backcountry skiing.

Ski touring combines elements of Nordic and alpine skiing and embraces such sub-disciplines as Telemark and randonnée. A defining characteristic is that the skier's heels are "free" – i.e. not bound to the skis – in order to allow a natural gliding motion while traversing and ascending terrain which may range from perfectly flat to extremely steep. Read more...

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Shivling
Eruption of Pinatubo 1991

Flora and fauna

Climbing in Greece
Georg Winkler.jpg

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This page was last updated at 2021-04-13 11:41, update this pageView original page

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